PhD Dissertations

Wendy BRADLEY, Strategy & Management, 2017

Three essays on patent pools and technical standards

Advisor(s): Thomas ASTEBRO


This thesis investigates the impact of patent pools for technical standards on the direction of cumulative innovation. It examines eight modern patents pools in the information and communication technology sector and measures the effect of pool formation and pool extension on rates of follow-on innovation in the direction of pool technology.Patent pools are the subject of much theoretical and empirical work. The aim of this thesis is to fill a gap in current literature that focuses on the motivations of firms to join a patent pool.This thesis contributes to the literature by extending analyses to the introduction of patents to patent pools over time. It consists of three empirical studies. Patent pools as institutions possess mechanisms that encourage and discourage innovation. The formation of a patent pool and its extension as a result of the addition of patents to the patent pool after its launch may alter the incentives to innovate of outsider firms. This, in turn, may have important impacts on competition and society. Finally, this thesis also analyzes the evolution of an industry that is particularly linked to technology in patents pools—the film industry.Digitization has transformed movie distribution and technological disruption has altered the supply and demand dimensions of this market. The main findings of these three studies arepresented at the beginning of each chapter.

Cédric GUTIERREZ MORENO, Strategy & Management, 2017

Three essays on entrepreneurial decision making

Advisor(s): Mohammed ABDELLAOUI, Thomas ASTEBRO


Explaining why individuals enter into entrepreneurship has been challenging. In this thesis, I take a behavioral perspective and analyze the effects on entrepreneurial entry of behavioral mechanisms that have been understudied in the entrepreneurship literature.The first essay proposes to disentangle the effects on market entry of two mechanisms that may have been confounded: overconfidence and attitude toward ambiguity. This essay highlights the critical role of ambiguity attitude on the decision to enter a market, particularly when the result depends on one’s skills, such as entry into entrepreneurship. The very nature of entrepreneurship is to invest capital and time with the hope of receiving future financial benefits. I therefore argue that understanding entrepreneurs’ temporal preferences for time and money can provide new insights on the determinants of entry into entrepreneurship.While intertemporal choice involving money has been studied extensively in the behavioral literature, very few studies have analyzed the way people discount time, despite the fact that it is a scarce and valuable resource. The second essay investigates this issue in a laboratory experiment. Finally, using a lab-in-the-field experiment, the third essay analyzes temporal preferences for money and time of a comparable sample of future entrepreneurs and future managers.

Jean-David SIGAUX, Finance, 2017

Three Essays on Bond Lending

Advisor(s): Thierry FOUCAULT


In the first chapter, I ask if short-sellers are superiorly informed about sovereign auctions. I find a large average increase in demand for short-selling prior to auctions. Yet, the demand for short-selling a bond does not predict a subsequent increase in the bond's yield.Overall, there is no evidence that short-sellers or edict or interpret auction outcomes better than the market. In the second chapter, I develop and test a model explaining the gradual price decrease observed in the days leading to large anticipated asset sales such as Treasury auctions. In the model, risk-averse investors anticipate an asset sale which magnitude, and hence price, are uncertain. I show that investors face a trade-off between hedging the price risk with a long position, and speculating on the difference between the pre-sale and the expected sale prices. Due to hedging, the equilibrium price is above the expected sale price. As the sale date approaches, uncertainty about the sale price decreases, short speculative positions increase and the price decreases. In line with the predictions, I find that the yield of Italian Treasuries increases by 1.2 bps after the release of auction price information, compared to non-information days.In the third chapter, I study the link between prices and repo rates during the subprime crisis. I find that the no-arbitrage relationship between prices and repo rates in Duffie (1996) fares worse during the crisis. However, low-reporate bonds have an 18.0% higher probability of being more expensive than identical high-reporate bonds during the crisis, compared to only 9.0% before the crisis. Overall, while there are high limits of arbitrage, prices and repo rates feature larger co-movements during the crisis.

Vincent ELI, Decision Sciences, 2017

Essays in normative and descriptive Decision Theory.

Advisor(s): Philippe MONGIN, Mohammed ABDELLAOUI


Decision Theory has been a very dynamic field since von Neumann and Morgenstern 1943. New decision models have opened new ways to think about our actions and every day decisions. Allais’ Paradox in 1953 forced decision theorists to be clearer about the intents their models and several authors claimed that expected utility solely has a normative intent (choices that we should make, potentially better) and not a descriptive one (choices as we make them, potentially flawed). It also allowed defining better methods of validation for a descriptive point of view. Best practices in descriptive decision theory have emerged and we have now clear-cut and vetted methods of justifying the use of a given model of decision theory for a descriptive aim. However for normative decision theory that intents to help us make better choices, we do not have a clear-cut way to determine and "prove" that a given model is the right one. This thesis provides an empirical design that provides such a methodology.

Aleksey KORNIYCHUK, Strategy & Management, 2017

Essays in Behavioral Strategy: Re-biased Search, Misconceived Complexity, and Cognitive Aliens

Advisor(s): Gonçalo PACHECO DE ALMEIDA, Tomasz OBLOJ


This work centers on the tenet that organizational rationality is bounded: decision makers search, satisfice, and think in a way that is typical (in its integrity) only of humans. The dissertation explores this interplay between search and decision maker’s cognition and demonstrates how biases in characteristic aspects of our thinking can be instruments of behavioral strategy. As a starting point, I take search, sequential generation and evaluation of alternatives, as the first primitive of bounded rationality and complement it with integral elements of human cognition, such as automatic, intuitive thinking, specifically affect heuristic, and imperfect mental representations of reality. With the help of computational models, I track the effects of the corresponding biases (systematic affective preferences and systematic errors in mental representations) over time as organizations adapt to complex environments. This allows me to identify life cycles of the elements of human cognition and show that organizations should manage (rather than eliminate) some biases over time. Finally, I derive predictions and empirically test a subset of my propositions. In conclusion, this work aims to advance the emerging theory of behavioral strategy by jointly considering different primitives of bounded rationality and integrating them with the existing knowledge in organization sciences. A broad question that motivates this work is how organizations can manage the many bounds to human rationality.

Nimish RUSTAGI, Marketing, 2017

Compensatory Consumption: exploring key questions regarding its use, context and effects

Advisor(s): L.J. SHRUM


This dissertation comprises three essays that pertain to the interrelated constructs of materialism and compensatory consumption. In Essay 1, I review research on the conceptualizations, causes, and consequences of materialism, analyze how adopting different conceptualizations may account for variations in research outcomes, and suggest a broad framework for analyzing materialism research. I also introduce research on compensatory consumption, which refers to the use and possession of material goods to address self-identity threats. In the end, I discuss some ideas for future research, particularly those related to compensatory consumption. In the next two essays, I investigate specific questions on compensatory consumption. In Essay 2, I revisit extant research that shows that compensating with products symbolic of threatened aspects of self-identity (i.e., within-domain compensatory consumption) causes threat-related rumination and depletes self-control resources of individuals. I find that such depletion occurs only when products are explicitly connected to the threatened aspects of self, and not when they are implicitly connected to the threatened aspects. In Essay 3, I examine the efficacy of within-domain compensatory consumption, that is, whether it restores self-identity on aspects damaged by a self-threat. I find that self-identity repair is thwarted when threatened individuals compensate with products having explicit connections to the threatened identity domain, but not when these connections are kept implicit. Explicit, but not implicit, connections remind consumers of the threat, thereby impeding self-repair. I also test a boundary condition to these finding, and show that when the self-threat itself is implicit (e.g., subtle, non-obvious), even products with explicit connections can provide self-repair.

Sara REZAEE VESSAL, Operations Management, 2017

Collaboration Within and Between Firmsin a Supply Chain

Advisor(s): Svenja SOMMER


The quality of collaboration within and between firms in a supply chain is one of the main concerns which is studied in supply chain management and economics literature. There are many forces that affect the level of collaboration in different hierarchical settings: collaboration within firms (inteam (group) level) and between firms (in firm level) (Drago and Turnbull, 1988; Siemsen, Balasubramanian, and Roth, 2007). Collaboration and communication within firms and between firms is studied in previous literature from different aspects and through analytical (Gibbons, 2005) and non-analytical methods (Mortensen and Neeley, 2012). This dissertation focuses on collaboration and cooperation between different parties, either within a firm or among different firms in a supply chain, in different contexts.This thesis consists of three chapters. In the first chapter, I discuss incentive design specifically in the context of product development and how different types of collaboration affect optimal team composition in designing a product. In the second chapter, I focus on collaboration among a supplierand different retailers to improve sustainability in a supply chain in terms of improving social welfare by lowering waste in the supply chain. In the last chapter, I consider the collaboration among a supplier and different buyers. The main purpose of this chapter is to study buyers' outsourcingversus in-sourcing decision in a supply chain in the presence of learning-by-doing by players, considering the effect of competition in the market.

Jung Won LEE, Organizations & Human Resources, 2017

Being in Love and at War with Team Colleagues: Three Essays on Positive and Negative relationships within teams.

Advisor(s): Mathis SCHULTE


My dissertation seeks to capture the complex interplays between positive and negative affects by delving into the two social relations that have been relatively understudied: negative ties and ambivalent ties within teams. In the first essay, I seek to delineate intra-team conflicts into different patterns of negative ties among team members, complementing the approach to intra-team conflict that has focused on the contents of conflict (e.g., task or interpersonal conflict). Taking a configural approach, I present a typology of within-team conflict that is based on four prototypical configurations of negative ties: “Battlefield,” “Public Enemy,” “Duels,” and “Rival Factions.” I demonstrate how these configurations of negative ties help us to better understand the origins and consequences of team conflict, and also delineate how positive ties could mitigate the negative effects of each team conflict type.The second essay explicates the nature of ambivalent relationships within teams. In this study, I seek to advance the literature on ambivalent ties by furthering the understanding of ambivalent relationships. In particular, I attempt to dispel a common confusion between ambivalent and ambiguous ties by identifying their distinct antecedents at the individual and dyadic level. Building on the clarification of ambivalent relationships in the second essay, the third essay takes the ambivalence to a team context, introducing the concept of “team ambivalence.” With the assumption that team members’ ambivalence about their teams is deeply rooted in their experience of dyadic relationships within their teams, I propose two different relationship patterns that lead to team ambivalence: within-tie and between-tie incongruence. Based on these patterns, I propose a theoretical model that explores the origins and consequences of team ambivalence.

Eui Ju JEON, Strategy & Management, 2017

Antecedents and Consequences of Exploration and Exploitation Decisions: Evidence from CorporateVenture Capital Investing

Advisor(s): Pierre DUSSAUGE, Corey PHELPS


This dissertation addresses unexplored issues on the antecedents, management, and outcomes of corporate venture capital (CVC). More specifically, I examine how negative performance feedback and corporate governance influence the direction of organizational change ˗ in terms of exploration and exploitation ˗ and how balancing such change over time influences firm performance in the CVC context. I first review the extant literature on CVC and lay out the unique contributions of my research. Then, in the first essay, I theorize on how poor firm performance influences the resource allocation decisions on exploration and exploitation and how such decisions are affected by the concentration of dedicated and transient shareholders and by the board of directors' monitoring and advising intensities. In the second essay, I empirically examine how the resource allocation decisions on exploration and exploitation are influenced by dedicated and transient shareholders in the context of CVC investing. In the third essay, I examine how balancing exploration and exploitation over time and the characteristics of oscillation impact firm performance. The empirical analysis in the latter two essays is based on CVC investments made by 287 companies during 1993-2013. This dissertation contributes to the Behavioral Theory of the Firm and Corporate Governance research by introducing how shareholders and boards influence managerial decision-making in search and change, Ambidexterity research by studying how continuous change and organizational inertia impact temporal spillover between exploration and exploitation, and CVC research by examining the antecedents and consequences of explorative and exploitative initiatives in CVC investing.

Celine FLIPO, Organizations & Human Resources, 2017

A Matter of Taste: A Deep Dive into Assessing Creativity

Advisor(s): Kevyn YONG, Francoise CHEVALIER


The objective of the present dissertation is to gain a better understanding of how people assess creativity, and of the antecedents and outcomes of this creativity assessment process. In the first essay, I address the question of how people in different cultures assess creativity. In an inductive study of the French and US versions of Top Chef, a professional chefs’ competition, striking cultural differences emerge both in the moves used at each step of the assessment process and in the frequency and valence of the criteria. In the second part of this dissertation, I focus on the cues upon which evaluators rely to assess creativity. In particular, I disentangle the mechanism underlying the relationship between the creator’s status and the evaluation of his or her creativity. I develop the role of a specialist identity and argue for a complementary effect with the creator’s status. I hypothesize and find evidence that the creator’s status is only beneficial for his creativity evaluation when he has a specialist identity. Finally, in the third part of the dissertation, I focus on team creativity and develop a theoretical model where the assessment process provides an explanation as for why teams are not always the breeding ground for creativity. I propose to conceptually distinguish between different team assessment processes and to explore their respective impact on team’s ability to select its most creative idea for further implementation.