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This dissertation is an inquiry into the phenomenon of social media use in organizational context with a focus at self-presentation transparency. It drives attention to the processes of enactment of this new technology and investigates how these developments are embedded in the context of occupational norms, social roles,organizational control and autonomy. The research setting is based on the 19-month social media implementation campaign by a central European media organization as a means of enhancing communication and coordination within the organization. The implementation encompassed two departments, journalists and advertising agents, whowere asked to create and open their online social media profiles and befriend their colleagues. The dissertation comprises four research papers each taking a separate perspective on the phenomenon. Methodologically, the dissertation builds onqualitative case-study approach and abductive and inductive reasonings. The thesis provides theoretical and practical contributions to the understanding ofthe normative prerequisites, process and consequences of social media use in organizational context for occupational norms, online knowledge collaboration and organizational control while presenting co-evolution of the technology meaning and use.
This dissertation explores the role of career age in shaping creativity over time. In the first paper, I challenge the commonly-held view that career age has a curvilinear effect on creativity, suggesting instead that career age does not have any clear effect on creativity. I argue that this happens because career age affects individuals’ cognitive complexity, flexibility and intrinsic motivation, which have opposite effects on creativity. I propose that these opposite effects engender different cognitive and motivational needs at different stages of the career, and these needs have to be attended to in order to maximize creativity. Consequently, career age acts as an important moderator of the relationship between creativity and some of its antecedents. In the second paper, I empirically test this idea by looking at the differential effect of two knowledge dimension, depth and breadth, on creativity over the career. I find that the effect of knowledge depth becomes more and more negative as career age progresses, while the effect of knowledge breadth becomes more and more positive. Finally, in the third paper I test these ideas at the team level of analysis, by looking at the effect of resources on team creativity. I find that the resources have a stronger effect when career age and repeated collaboration are high.
This dissertation is composed of the three essays, each contributing to address part of the puzzle regarding how different types of political connections affect firms’ international expansion strategies and performance. The first essay examines how political connections moderate the relationship between host country attributes and international strategy in a sample of greenfield investments in manufacturing during the 2003-2010 period. The second and third essays examine how political connections directly impact a firm’s international expansion strategies and performance. The second essay investigates the role of different types of political connections on a firm’s international investments amount and risk profile. Finally, the third essay analyzes the role of political connections as an explanatory factor of firms’ ability to accelerate the provision of funding and development of their project finance-based investments. Both the latter two essays rely on an original dataset on various political connections enjoyed by the largest French firms during the 2003-2012 period.
The main objective of this dissertation is to explain why coordinative efficiency,creative efficiency, together with static efficiency are all critical goals of governance design in digital age, and to explore innovative governance arrangements, beyond the one-dimensional line defined by “market” and “hierarchy”, that can facilitate the processes of integrative coordination, and collective creation in organizations.The dissertation is composed of three essays. Essay 1 is a theory paper that provides the overall theoretical arguments about why transaction cost economics (Williamson 1979, 1991, 1996, 2002) is no longer a satisfactory theoretical framework for governance design in the digital age, and offers a normative model which suggest possibilities of much more nuanced, complicated and pluralistic governance choices than suggested by transaction cost economics. It is argued that potential governance choices are not solely situated on a one-dimensional line between hierarchy and market, as transaction cost economics asserts. The rich connotations of socially constructed agency (Giddens, 1985; Greenwood et al. 2011) provide diverse possibilities of governance arrangements, which spread across a triangular plane in a three-dimensional space defined by static efficiency, coordinative efficiency and creative efficiency (see Figure 1). This paperprovides both graphic and mathematical presentations of this three-dimensional model for governance design, which can be applied to different levels of organizing.Essay 2 and 3 are two empirical papers that endeavor to extend Essay 1 by finding out the exact relationship between certain innovative governance arrangements with organizations’ performance in coordinative and creative efficiencies. Essay 2 focuses on the realization of integrative coordination in organizations. It found out that layered distributed organizational structure (Simon, 1962), broad-brushed ex ante plan (Edmondson, Bohmer and Pisano, 2001), and semi-structures (Brown and Eisenhardt, 1997) are beneficial in facilitating an ongoing coordination process when interdependencies are complex and uncertain. Essay 3 focuses on organizations’ performance in collective creativity (Shalley et al., 2004; George, 2007), especiallyon what governance arrangements can best allow collective creativity to emerge without overly sacrificing organizational stability and efficiency. It is discovered that “ordered disruption”, including ordered spatial disruption, ordered temporal disruption and ordered affective disruption, have positive effects on the emergence of collective creativity. Both Essay 2 and Essay 3 use collaborative organizations on smart city projects as the empirical setting. The findings of these two empirical papers are grounded on multiple case studies on those collaborative organizations.
Climate change and global temperature rise has made environmentallegislations a focal point of discussion. This dissertation is devoted to the study ofenvironmental legislations and their effect on supply chain practices. More precisely, ourcenter of interest is the product recovery based legislation along with compliance basedregulations. We explore the reuse potential and the environmental and economical aspects of different product recovery based legislation schemes by modeling a stackelberg game between a social welfare maximizing policy maker and a profit maximizing monopolistic firm and find that a combination of existing recoverypolicies i.e., a recovery target in combination with incentive structure such as taxation/subsidy may lead to better outcomes not only from environmental perspective but also from economical aspects. In Chapter 2, we extend the discussion comparative performance of the recovery legislation based schemes in presence of innovation and product design issues and show how unintended environmental outcomes may appear if the policy framework is not adequately designed. In Chapter 3, we capture the effect of recovery legislations and compliance based legislations on productselection when a firm serves a number of markets. We incorporate the effects ofuncertainty associated with market demands and recovery cost parameters and present a robust optimization based method for product selection and allocation decisions.
The first chapter shows that mutual funds that hold illiquid stocks (“illiquid funds”) outperform funds that hold liquid stocks (“liquid funds”). There is evidence this outperformance arises from stock selection skills of illiquid funds. The stocks held by illiquid funds outperform portfolios matched by characteristics. Liquid funds declare benchmarks that make their benchmark adjusted returns appear larger. A portfolio of stocks held by illiquid funds subsequently outperforms a portfolio of stocks held by liquid funds. The second chapter documents a predictability pattern in returns. This chapter identifies high opportunities in stocks with difficult valuation as times when returns of neglected stocks diverge from returns of covered stocks. Subsequent returns of stocks with difficult valuation are higher when beginning of period opportunities are high, as compared to when beginning of period opportunities are low. This is consistent with an information risk theory, where investors demand a higher premium to hold stocks with higher probability of informed trading, because they fear adverse selection. The third chapter explores instances when mutual funds change their style (style is regarded as risk exposure alongside usual factors). Mutual funds do not take more risk when it is more profitable to do so. After performing badly, mutual funds move closer to the style of good performing peer funds. Young funds' styles diverge from the style of old peer funds. Recently hired managers diverge in style from veteran managers of peer funds. When the average fund takes more risk alongside a style dimension, it does not simultaneously consider other style dimensions.
Notre travail explore les groupes activistes en tant qu’organisations de mouvements sociaux. Pour cela, nous étudions comment les activistes expriment leur message en mobilisant des symboles (discours, position du corps, objets…) pour construire un ensemble de performances spécifiques appelé le répertoire tactique. Pour ce faire, ils s’inspirent de leurs prédécesseurs et de leurs cadres théoriques. Dans un deuxième temps, nous décrivons comment les activistes mobilisent les médias à l’aide d’une stratégie médiatique, reposant à la fois sur le répertoire tactique et sur une certaine intégration des activistes en son sein. Enfin, nous analysons les moyens par lesquels le groupe activiste mobilise ses membres (c’est-à-dire les recrute et les retient) ; cela passe en particulier par l’acquisition de compétences émancipatrices pour les activistes. En conclusion, nous montrons que le répertoire tactique constitue la colonne vertébrale d’un groupe activiste et participe à toutes les tâches que nous avons décrites (mobilisation de symboles, des médias et des activistes). Cette spécificité définit le groupe activiste en tant qu’organisation. Nous nous appuyons sur un travail ethnographique d’un an auprès du groupe activiste féministe La Barbe qui dénonce l’absence de femmes en haut des organisations. Notre travail s’accompagne d’une réflexion méthodologique sur l’observation d’un groupe féministe par un ethnographe homme.
In the light of the growing societal pressure to deal with the climate change and somerelevant environmental issues, there has been a trend to mitigate the negative environmentalimpacts, either through enforcing the environmental legislations or through advocating some greenbusiness models. Against this situation, it is widely acknowledged that when decision makers(either business executives or policy makers) are typically in a position to implement some actionsto deal with sustainability challenges, they are often lack the theoretical underpinning to appreciatewhether these actions are optimal or not. Thus, besides its academic relevance, advancing thefrontier of theoretical research is the necessary condition to help decision makers achievesustainability goals. The hi-tech industry and the transportation sector are both responsible forgenerating serious environmental concerns: the former as a result of electronic waste generated byrapid obsolescence of many electronic products; the latter because of its massive reliance on fossilfuels. In response to the environmental challenges, this Ph.D. thesis studies these two sectors withan aim to provide decision makers with guidance in the two specific areas: waste reduction andpromotion of low carbon transportation means. The results have implications for firms and policymakers alike.