PhD Dissertations

João ALBINO PIMENTEL, Strategy and Business Policy, 2016

Three Essays on the Influence of Political Connections on Firms International Expansion Strategy

Advisor(s): Pierre DUSSAUGE

This dissertation is composed of the three essays, each contributing to address part of the puzzle regarding how different types of political connections affect firms’ international expansion strategies and performance. The first essay examines how political connections moderate the relationship between host country attributes and international strategy in a sample of greenfield investments in manufacturing during the 2003-2010 period. The second and third essays examine how political connections directly impact a firm’s international expansion strategies and performance. The second essay investigates the role of different types of political connections on a firm’s international investments amount and risk profile. Finally, the third essay analyzes the role of political connections as an explanatory factor of firms’ ability to accelerate the provision of funding and development of their project finance-based investments. Both the latter two essays rely on an original dataset on various political connections enjoyed by the largest French firms during the 2003-2012 period.

Guo BAI, Strategy and Business Policy, 2016

Three essays on the governance design in the digital age

Advisor(s): Bertrand MOINGEON

The main objective of this dissertation is to explain why coordinative efficiency,creative efficiency, together with static efficiency are all critical goals of governance design in digital age, and to explore innovative governance arrangements, beyond the one-dimensional line defined by “market” and “hierarchy”, that can facilitate the processes of integrative coordination, and collective creation in organizations.The dissertation is composed of three essays. Essay 1 is a theory paper that provides the overall theoretical arguments about why transaction cost economics (Williamson 1979, 1991, 1996, 2002) is no longer a satisfactory theoretical framework for governance design in the digital age, and offers a normative model which suggest possibilities of much more nuanced, complicated and pluralistic governance choices than suggested by transaction cost economics. It is argued that potential governance choices are not solely situated on a one-dimensional line between hierarchy and market, as transaction cost economics asserts. The rich connotations of socially constructed agency (Giddens, 1985; Greenwood et al. 2011) provide diverse possibilities of governance arrangements, which spread across a triangular plane in a three-dimensional space defined by static efficiency, coordinative efficiency and creative efficiency (see Figure 1). This paperprovides both graphic and mathematical presentations of this three-dimensional model for governance design, which can be applied to different levels of organizing.Essay 2 and 3 are two empirical papers that endeavor to extend Essay 1 by finding out the exact relationship between certain innovative governance arrangements with organizations’ performance in coordinative and creative efficiencies. Essay 2 focuses on the realization of integrative coordination in organizations. It found out that layered distributed organizational structure (Simon, 1962), broad-brushed ex ante plan (Edmondson, Bohmer and Pisano, 2001), and semi-structures (Brown and Eisenhardt, 1997) are beneficial in facilitating an ongoing coordination process when interdependencies are complex and uncertain. Essay 3 focuses on organizations’ performance in collective creativity (Shalley et al., 2004; George, 2007), especiallyon what governance arrangements can best allow collective creativity to emerge without overly sacrificing organizational stability and efficiency. It is discovered that “ordered disruption”, including ordered spatial disruption, ordered temporal disruption and ordered affective disruption, have positive effects on the emergence of collective creativity. Both Essay 2 and Essay 3 use collaborative organizations on smart city projects as the empirical setting. The findings of these two empirical papers are grounded on multiple case studies on those collaborative organizations.

Shumail MAZAHIR, Information Systems and Operations Management, 2016

Three essays on the effects of environmental regulations on supply chain practices

Advisor(s): Laoucine KERBACHE

Climate change and global temperature rise has made environmentallegislations a focal point of discussion. This dissertation is devoted to the study ofenvironmental legislations and their effect on supply chain practices. More precisely, ourcenter of interest is the product recovery based legislation along with compliance basedregulations. We explore the reuse potential and the environmental and economical aspects of different product recovery based legislation schemes by modeling a stackelberg game between a social welfare maximizing policy maker and a profit maximizing monopolistic firm and find that a combination of existing recoverypolicies i.e., a recovery target in combination with incentive structure such as taxation/subsidy may lead to better outcomes not only from environmental perspective but also from economical aspects. In Chapter 2, we extend the discussion comparative performance of the recovery legislation based schemes in presence of innovation and product design issues and show how unintended environmental outcomes may appear if the policy framework is not adequately designed. In Chapter 3, we capture the effect of recovery legislations and compliance based legislations on productselection when a firm serves a number of markets. We incorporate the effects ofuncertainty associated with market demands and recovery cost parameters and present a robust optimization based method for product selection and allocation decisions.

Alina ROSU, Finance, 2016

Three Essays in Asset Management

Advisor(s): Laurent CALVET

The first chapter shows that mutual funds that hold illiquid stocks (“illiquid funds”) outperform funds that hold liquid stocks (“liquid funds”). There is evidence this outperformance arises from stock selection skills of illiquid funds. The stocks held by illiquid funds outperform portfolios matched by characteristics. Liquid funds declare benchmarks that make their benchmark adjusted returns appear larger. A portfolio of stocks held by illiquid funds subsequently outperforms a portfolio of stocks held by liquid funds. The second chapter documents a predictability pattern in returns. This chapter identifies high opportunities in stocks with difficult valuation as times when returns of neglected stocks diverge from returns of covered stocks. Subsequent returns of stocks with difficult valuation are higher when beginning of period opportunities are high, as compared to when beginning of period opportunities are low. This is consistent with an information risk theory, where investors demand a higher premium to hold stocks with higher probability of informed trading, because they fear adverse selection. The third chapter explores instances when mutual funds change their style (style is regarded as risk exposure alongside usual factors). Mutual funds do not take more risk when it is more profitable to do so. After performing badly, mutual funds move closer to the style of good performing peer funds. Young funds' styles diverge from the style of old peer funds. Recently hired managers diverge in style from veteran managers of peer funds. When the average fund takes more risk alongside a style dimension, it does not simultaneously consider other style dimensions.

Fabien HILDWEIN, Management and Human Resources, 2016

The mobilization work of an activist group. Tactical repertoire, media and members implication.

Advisor(s): F. CHEVALIER, J. EVANS

Notre travail explore les groupes activistes en tant qu’organisations de mouvements sociaux. Pour cela, nous étudions comment les activistes expriment leur message en mobilisant des symboles (discours, position du corps, objets…) pour construire un ensemble de performances spécifiques appelé le répertoire tactique. Pour ce faire, ils s’inspirent de leurs prédécesseurs et de leurs cadres théoriques. Dans un deuxième temps, nous décrivons comment les activistes mobilisent les médias à l’aide d’une stratégie médiatique, reposant à la fois sur le répertoire tactique et sur une certaine intégration des activistes en son sein. Enfin, nous analysons les moyens par lesquels le groupe activiste mobilise ses membres (c’est-à-dire les recrute et les retient) ; cela passe en particulier par l’acquisition de compétences émancipatrices pour les activistes. En conclusion, nous montrons que le répertoire tactique constitue la colonne vertébrale d’un groupe activiste et participe à toutes les tâches que nous avons décrites (mobilisation de symboles, des médias et des activistes). Cette spécificité définit le groupe activiste en tant qu’organisation. Nous nous appuyons sur un travail ethnographique d’un an auprès du groupe activiste féministe La Barbe qui dénonce l’absence de femmes en haut des organisations. Notre travail s’accompagne d’une réflexion méthodologique sur l’observation d’un groupe féministe par un ethnographe homme.

Laure CELERIER, 2016

State power, government controllers and the audit test – A study on the implementation of internal audit in French government control services.

Advisor(s): Eve CHIAPELLO

This thesis analyzes the introduction of an internal audit function in the French government administration, following a reform launched in June 2011. It is based on qualitative data collection, composed of semi-structured interviews (n=121), a five-month participant observation, the attendance of several meetings and document analysis. Our thesis shows that the introduction of an internal audit function was made possible not only by a buoyant context, characterized by the success of the audit, but also by a previous set of reforms. This set of reforms had several effects, including a weakening of the legitimacy of government controllers.Internal audit, as it is implemented in the administration, is shaped, firstly by power struggles within the administration, which triggered the reform, secondly by a confrontation of government controllers in charge of implementing the reform in their ministries. Lastly, our research shows that the introduction of internal audit not only destabilizes the previous organization of government control, but also reveals a transformation of state power.

Evelina ATANASSOVA, Management and Human Resources, 2016

Should I Bridge or Should I Bond? Social Capital Strategies and Contingencies

Advisor(s): Michel LANDER, F. CHEVALIER

My dissertation expands the line of inquiry of the contingent value of social capitalto individual performance by raising three novel questions. In the first essay of my dissertationI focus on “How to bridge and how to bond” and propose a new theoretical framework foranalyzing social capital, which deconstructs its major function beyond bridging or bonding intoits substance as social relations versus position in network structure. Considering these twodimensions of social network analysis I propose four distinct sources of social capital that havedifferent predictive value for individual achievements: bridging network, bridging relations,bonding network and bonding relations. The lead question in the second chapter of mydissertation is “When to bridge and when to bond”. Joining the research on the contingentvalue of social capital, I look at organization and individual level factors to predict the value ofeach social capital source to performance and theorize about the strategies individuals shouldpursue in order to achieve better performance. In the third essay I ask “Should one start withbridging or with bonding?” Building on the categorization proposed in the first chapter Iinvestigate the most successful social capital path to on-the-job performance.

Ni FANG, Information Systems and Operations Management, 2016

Operations Management Under Emission Regulation

Advisor(s): Andrea MASINI

In the light of the growing societal pressure to deal with the climate change and somerelevant environmental issues, there has been a trend to mitigate the negative environmentalimpacts, either through enforcing the environmental legislations or through advocating some greenbusiness models. Against this situation, it is widely acknowledged that when decision makers(either business executives or policy makers) are typically in a position to implement some actionsto deal with sustainability challenges, they are often lack the theoretical underpinning to appreciatewhether these actions are optimal or not. Thus, besides its academic relevance, advancing thefrontier of theoretical research is the necessary condition to help decision makers achievesustainability goals. The hi-tech industry and the transportation sector are both responsible forgenerating serious environmental concerns: the former as a result of electronic waste generated byrapid obsolescence of many electronic products; the latter because of its massive reliance on fossilfuels. In response to the environmental challenges, this Ph.D. thesis studies these two sectors withan aim to provide decision makers with guidance in the two specific areas: waste reduction andpromotion of low carbon transportation means. The results have implications for firms and policymakers alike.

Shadi GOODARZI, Information Systems and Operations Management, 2016

Operational Strategies and Optimal Policies for the Diffusion of Environmental Technology Systems

Advisor(s): Andrea MASINI, Sam AFLAKI

The main goal of this dissertation is to study the potential factors that may hamper or accelerate the diffusion of environmental energy systems (e.g: renewable energies). To this end, using different methods such as game theory, survey data analysis, and time series data analysis we observe the diffusion of these technologies from different perspectives such as policy makers, manufacturers, and customers. This dissertation consists of five chapters. The first chapter provides introduction and background of the research.Second chapter investigates the role of policy makers and technology manufacturers on the diffusion of the environmental energy systems. Chapter three is dedicated to studying the impact of different information dimensions on the different stages of environmental technology adoption process. Chapter four examines effect of the penetration of the environmental energy systems into the electricity market by studying theelectricity spot price and electricity supply-demand imbalance. Lastly, chapter five concludes the results of this study and provides directions for future researches. The results reported in this dissertation offer valuable managerial insights to policy makers, technology manufacturers and to firms operating in the energy sector.

Maria ROUZIOU, Marketing, 2016

Impact of Social Comparisons on Sales Organization Performance

Advisor(s): Dominique ROUZIES

This dissertation examines how horizontal pay inequalities in sales organizations impact salespeople’s performance. More specifically, I explore costs that arise through social comparisons with salient targets within sales organizations. I use compensation and performance data of more than 34,000 salespeople as well as data pertaining to the brands they sell, to show that brand power can substitute for pay and counteract the detrimental effect of pay inequality on performance. Moreover, my results suggest that job challenge can also act as a surrogate for pay, thereby affecting the relationship between pay gaps and performance. Further, I describe the effect of organizational ownership structure on salespeople’s performance management. Given that many sales organizations reward better performers by heightening pay dispersion, decision makers should carefully leverage their brand portfolio and sales team job assignments to soften the impact of pay gaps on salespeople’s performance.