Publications

Articles

A Mathematical Turn in Business Regulation: The Rise of Legal Indicators

D. RESTREPO AMARILES

International Journal of Law in Context

Forthcoming

Departments: Tax & Law


Achieving High Growth in Policy-Dependent Industries: Differences between Startups and Corporate-Backed Ventures

R. DURAND, G. PANAYIOTIS (PANIKOS)

Long Range Planning

Forthcoming

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2794262


This research examines which firms achieve high growth in policy-dependent industries. Using the European solar photovoltaic industry as our empirical setting, we investigate the impact of policy support on the growth of independent startups and corporate-backed ventures operating across countries with diverse policy conditions. We find that producers' growth is positively linked to policy generosity, and negatively linked to policy discontinuity. Moreover, corporate-backed ventures are less affected by policy generosity compared to entrepreneurial startups, and less impacted by policy discontinuity as well. Our results underline the importance of country- and firm-level differences in analyzing firms' response to regulatory policies, and point to the need for a better understanding of the unintended consequences of policies designed to support new industries.

Alleviating Managerial Dilemmas In Human-Capital-Intensive Firms Through Incentives: Evidence From M&A Legal Advisors

O. CHATAIN, P. MEYER-DOYLE

Strategic Management Journal

Forthcoming

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Human-Capital-Intensive Firms, Human Capital, Managerial Dilemmas, Incentives, Capabilities, Micro-foundations, Mergers and Acquisitions, Law firms

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2693097


We examine how human-capital-intensive firms deploy their human assets and how firm-specific human capital interacts with incentives to influence this deployment. Our empirical context is the UK M&A legal market, where micro-data enable us to observe the allocation of lawyers to M&A mandates under different incentive regimes. We find that law firms actively equalize the workload among their lawyers to seek efficiency gains while ‘stretching’ lawyers with high firm-specific capital to a greater extent. However, lawyers with high firm-specific capital also appear to influence the staffing process in their favor, leading to unbalanced allocations and less sharing of projects and clients. Paradoxically, law firms may adopt a seniority-based rent-sharing system that weakens individual incentives to mitigate the impact of incentive conflicts on resource deployment

An Integrative Model of the Influence of Parental and Peer Support on Consumer Ethical Beliefs: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem, Power and Materialism

E. GENTINA, L. SHRUM, T. LOWREY, S. VITELL, G. ROSE

Journal of Business Ethics

Forthcoming

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Ethics, Adolescent consumers, Materialism, Self-esteem, Power, Peer support, Parental support


What causes adolescents to develop consumer’ ethipatterns of parent–child interactions to explain risky and unethical consumer behaviors. We take a different perspective by focusing on the positive support of parents and peers in adolescent social development. An integrative model is developed that links parental and peer support with adolescents’ self-worth motives, their materialistic tendencies, and their consumer ethical beliefs. In a study of 984 adolescents, we demonstrate support for a sequential mediation model in which peer and parental support is positively related to adolescents’ self-esteem and feelings of power, which are each associated with decreased materialism as a means of compensating for low self-worth. This reduced materialism is, in turn, associated with more etcal beliefs? Prior research has largely focused on the negative influence of peers and negative patterns of parent–child interactions to explain risky and unethical consumer behaviors. We take a different perspective by focusing on the positive support of parents and peers in adolescent social development. An integrative model is developed that links parental and peer support with adolescents’ self-worth motives, their materialistic tendencies, and their consumer ethical beliefs. In a study of 984 adolescents, we demonstrate support for a sequential mediation model in which peer and parental support is positively related to adolescents’ self-esteem and feelings of power, which are each associated with decreased materialism as a means of compensating for low self-worth. This reduced materialism is, in turn, associated with more ethical consumer beliefs

Better Safe than Sorry: Subsidiary Performance Feedback and Internal Governance in Multiunit Firms

T. OBLOJ, m SENGUL

Journal of Management

Forthcoming

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


This paper explores the link between subsidiary performance feedback and internal governance mechanisms in multiunit firms. A central premise of performance feedback models is that performance below aspirations is associated with increased risk tolerance and thereby with a higher likelihood of taking excessive risks in resource allocation decisions. Building on this observation, we contend that the headquarters of multiunit firms take this association into account in the design of internal (i.e., headquarters-subsidiary) governance mechanisms. Accordingly, a subsidiary’s performance-aspiration gap (below aspirations) is positively associated with the headquarters’ oversight of its resource allocation decisions and negatively associated with the provision of incentive schemes that promote risk taking. Regression results, using data on subsidiaries in France between 1998 and 2004, support our hypotheses and show that subsidiaries performing below historical and social aspirations are less likely to be given discretion in investment decisions and incentivized by cash bonuses. In the supplementary analyses we also provide suggestive evidence that subsidiary performance problems in multiunit firms trigger structural adaptation in the internal governance mechanisms in pursuit of regaining fit

Better together: using meta-analysis to explore complementarities between ecological and institutional theories of organization

M. LANDER, P. HEUGENS

Organization Studies

Forthcoming

Departments: Management & Human Resources, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Constructing, Contesting, and Overloading: A Study of Risk Management Framing

M. BRIVOT, D. HIMICK, D. MARTINEZ

European Accounting Review

Forthcoming

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)


In this study, we examine the ways in which actuarial consultants attempt to motivate their clients to see pension-related accounting regulations and market volatility as ‘risks’ that need to be managed through particular risk-mitigating technologies. This study is predicated on 23 interviews conducted with actuarial consultants and their clients and consulting agencies’ publically available documents. Taking framing theory and the sociological literature on risk as conceptual starting points, we find that consultants engage in specific framing strategies to persuade clients by rhetorically weaving a series of financial risk objects, financial de-risking strategies, and calls for action. We also find that current and prospective clients sometimes contest consultants’ prescriptions, despite the pervasiveness of risk management as the ultima ratio of organizational governance. This contestation occurs, ironically, because adopting de-risking solutions in one area is perceived by some clients as triggering new risks in areas unforeseen by consultants. This research increases our knowledge of how new risk objects and de-risking solutions come into existence and why some risk management practices fail to be diffused within organizations despite the staggering success of the risk management rationality. We explain the latter through the concepts of frame diffraction and overload

Drift or alignment? A configurational analysis of law firms' ability to combine profitability with professionalism

M. LANDER

Journal of Professions and Organization

Forthcoming

Departments: Management & Human Resources, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Fair and Equitable Treatment in Investor-State Dispute Settlement: A New Interpretative Framework

D. RESTREPO AMARILES, A. VAN WAEYENBERGE

Journal of Business Law

Forthcoming

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)


The fair and equitable treatment (FET) standard has become the cornerstone of investor-state dispute settlement, and one of the most disputed notions in international business law. With investors facing increasing uncertainty, and states moving closer to denouncing treaties they see as limiting their sovereign right to regulate, FET has come to pose a significant risk to the entire investor-state dispute resolution system. This paper outlines an alternative way to consider FET, by acknowledging its thick and indeterminate character as a legal standard. It argues that previous traditional taxonomies have inherent limitations, and that practitioners should instead seek to understand the FET standard through the lens of the rule of law. The paper offers an analysis of the jurisprudence of the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) to show that three principles of the rule of law – due process, legal certainty, and the prohibition of arbitrariness – constitute an operational and certain, yet flexible framework of interpretation for the application of the FET standard

Organization Design, Proximity, and Productivity Responses to Upward Social Comparison

T. OBLOJ, T. ZENGER

Organization Science

Forthcoming

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Incentives, Social Comparison Costs, Envy, Productivity, Organization Design

https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxwdWJsaXNoZWRwYXBlcnMxMjM0fGd4OjVmOGU0MTIwNWZkNzQ2Zjc


We investigate the mechanisms that shape social comparison in organizations and generate socialcomparison costs. In particular, we focus on heterogeneity in the strength and type of incentivesand argue that, from an efficient design perspective, such variance in rewards is a double edgedsword. While the sorting and incentive effects that result may increase productivity, the socialcomparison processes that arise may dampen it. We posit that the mechanisms underlying thesebehavioral costs are shaped not only by the magnitude of reward variance, but by the formal andinformal design elements shaping the distance of advantaged peers. In other words, the moreproximate socially, structurally or geographically are those to whom one socially compares, thelarger the behavioral response. Empirically, we use an unanticipated event during which outlets ofa bank, previously operating under essentially homogenous incentives, were assigned totournament groups with differing ex ante probabilities of winning a prize—an event that increasesvariance in awards and hence generates an impetus for social comparison. We find that units withmore socially, geographically, and structurally proximate peers assigned to ‘advantaged’tournament groups decreased their productivity. We discuss implications of these results fororganizational design and boundaries

Public-Private Collaboration, Hybridity and Social Value: Towards New Theoretical Perspectives

B. QUELIN, I. KIVLENIECE, S. LAZZARINI

Journal of Management Studies

Forthcoming

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Strategic Investment in Renewable Energy Sources: The Effect of Supply Intermittency

S. AFLAKI, S. NETESSINE

Manufacturing & Service Operations Management

Forthcoming

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Electricity Generation, Renewables, Intermittency, Capacity Planning and Investment, Incentives and Contracting

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2661582


To analyze incentives for investing in the capacity to generate renewable electricity, we model the trade-off between renewable (e.g. wind) and nonrenewable (e.g. natural gas) technology. Renewable technology has a higher investment cost and yields only an intermittent supply of electricity; nonrenewable technology is reliable and has lower investment cost but entails both fuel expenditures and carbon emission costs. With reference to existing electricity markets, we model several interrelated contexts - the vertically integrated electricity supplier, market competition, and partial market competition with long-term fixed-price contracts for renewable electricity - and examine the effect of carbon taxes on the cost and share of wind capacity in an energy portfolio. We find that the intermittency of renewable technologies drives the effectiveness of carbon pricing mechanisms, which suggests that charging more for emissions could unexpectedly discourage investment in renewables. We also show that market liberalization may reduce investment in renewable capacity while increasing the overall system's cost and emissions. Fixed-price contracts with renewable generators can mitigate these detrimental effects, but not without possibly creating other problems. In short: actions to reduce the intermittency of renewable sources may be more effective than carbon taxes alone at promoting investment in renewable generation capacity

The Impact of the French Doctrine of ‘Significant Imbalance’ on International Business Transactions

D. RESTREPO AMARILES, E. M. BASSILANA, M. M. WINKLER

Journal of Business Law

Forthcoming

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)


The Price of Admission: Organizational Deference as Strategic Behavior

J. JOURDAN, R. DURAND, P. THORNTON

American Journal of Sociology

Forthcoming

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: deference, symbolic boundaries, strategic management, organizations

http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2845785


Why would market organizations engage in symbolic and material acts conveying appreciation and respect to other organizations that confirm their inferior position in an established hierarchy? Deference, we argue, is the price outsider organizations pay to pass categorical and symbolic boundaries, and gain acceptance in contexts where insiders regard them as impure. Because not all organizations can or are willing to pay the price, deference varies according to positional, dispositional, and interactional characteristics. We examine and find support for the view of organizational deference as strategic behavior using empirical evidence on market finance organizations investing in film production in France over two decades. Our analysis expands research on non-conflictual interactions and symbolic boundaries in market setting

The Relationship between Lack of Controllability and Proactive Work Behaviour: An Empirical Analysis of Competing Theoretical Explanations

M. BURKERT, F. M. FISCHER, F. HOOS, K. SCHUHMACHER

Accounting and Business Research

Forthcoming

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: controllability principle, management control systems, role theory, role conflict, flexible role orientation, proactive work behaviour

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00014788.2016.1222262


The controllability principle suggests evaluating managers solely based on performance measures they can control. In practice, however, companies often disregard this principle. Therefore, our study addresses organisational benefits linked to the lack of controllability in measures used for managers’ performance evaluations. We draw on important case-based findings to establish a positive ‘base relationship’ between lack of controllability and proactive work behaviour. We test this base relationship with a large-scale sample and find that companies encourage higher levels of proactive work behaviour when they rely on less controllable performance measures. Drawing on recent developments in role theory, we advance previous research and extend the base model by including the theoretical construct of flexible role orientation. We examine different mechanisms through which flexible role orientation potentially impacts the base model. Using survey responses from 432 managers, we find evidence for a mediation model as opposed to an interaction model. Specifically, we find that lack of controllability enhances role conflict, which in turn induces more flexible role orientations ultimately resulting in higher levels of proactive work behaviour

Too any Cooks Spoil the Broth? Geographic Concentration, Social Norms, and Knowledge Transfer

G. DI STEFANO, A. A. KING, G VERONA

Advances in Strategic Management

Forthcoming, vol. 36

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2767610


A long tradition in social science research emphasizes the potential for knowledge to flow among firms co-located in dense areas. Scholars have suggested numerous modes for these flows, including the voluntary transfer of private knowledge from one firm to another. Why would the holder of valuable private knowledge willingly transfer it to a potential and closely proximate competitor? In this paper, we argue that geographic concentration has an effect on the expected compliance with norms governing the use of transferred knowledge. The increased expected compliance favors trust and initiates a process of reciprocal exchange. To test our theory, we use a scenario-based field experiment in gourmet cuisine, an industry in which property rights do not effectively protect knowledge and geographic concentration is common. Our results confirm our conjecture by showing that the expectation that a potential co-located firm will abide by norms mediates the relationship between geographic concentration and the willingness to transfer private knowledge

Towards an Integrated Framework of Professional Partnership Performance: the Role of Formal Governance and Strategic Planning

M. LANDER

Human Relations

Forthcoming

Departments: Management & Human Resources, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Assembling international development: Accountability and the disarticulation of a social movement

D. MARTINEZ AHLOY, DAVID COOPER

Accounting Organizations and Society

February 2017, vol. 57, pp.18-32

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Accountability, Social movements, International development, Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), Governmentality, Assemblages

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0361368217300120


This paper examines how international development funding and accountability requirements are implicated in the so-called disarticulation of a social movement. Based on field studies in Guatemala and El Salvador, we show and explain the way accountability requirements, which encompass management and accounting, legal, and financial technologies, constitute the field of international development through the regulation of heterogeneous social movement organizations. We highlight how accountability enables a form of governance that makes possible the emergence of entities (with specific attributes), while restricting others. Our analysis has implications for governmentality studies that have examined the interrelation of assemblages by analyzing how these interrelations are operationalized at the field level through the Deleuze-and-Guattari-inspired processes of territorialization, coding, and overcoding

The Effect of Joint Auditor Pair Composition on Audit Quality: Evidence from Impairment Tests

G. LOBO, L. PAUGAM, D. ZHANG, J.-F. CASTA

Contemporary Accounting Research

Spring 2017, vol. 34, n°1, pp.118-153

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Joint Audits, Audit Quality, Auditor Independence, Impairment Testing, Conservatism


Using a sample of firms from France, where the law requires the use of two auditors, we study the effect of auditor pair composition on audit quality by examining a specific account, goodwill impairment. We document that firms audited by a Big 4–non-Big 4 auditor pair (BS) are more likely to book an impairment and book a larger impairment than firms audited by a Big 4–Big 4 auditor pair (BB) when low performance indicators suggest a greater likelihood of impairment. Moreover, firms audited by a BB pair reduce impairment disclosures when they book impairments, while firms audited by a BS pair do not, suggesting lower transparency for firms audited by a BB pair. Our results inform investors and firms in mandatory joint audit regimes, as well as regulators who are considering requiring joint audits.

The expanding domain of strategic management research and the quest for integration

R. DURAND, R. M. GRANT, T. L. MADSEN

Strategic Management Journal

January 2017, vol. 38, n°1, pp.4-16

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: literature reviews; paradigm; scholarly field; fragmentation, integration


This special issue of Strategic Management Journal was motivated by concern that the growing scope and diversity of the strategic management field creates the risk of incoherence and fragmentation and the belief that research reviews could contribute to synthesis and integration. In this introductory essay, we address the expanding domain of strategic management, consider where its boundaries lie, identify the forces engendering fragmentation, and discuss how this special issue—and research reviews in general—can assist convergence within the field of strategy. We conclude by addressing the potential for integration more broadly in relation to the theories we deploy, the phenomena we investigate, and cohesiveness of our scholarly community

The Recursive Nature of Institutional Change: An Annales School Perspective

M. CLEMENTE, R. DURAND, T. ROULET

Journal of Management Inquiry

January 2017, vol. 26, n°1, pp.17 - 31

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Annales School, Institutional change, Institutional logics, Events

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2805362


In this essay, we propose a recursive model of institutional change building on the Annales School, one of the 20th century’s most influential streams of historical research. Our model builds upon three concepts from the Annales—mentalities, levels of time, and critical events—to explore how critical events affect different dimensions of institutional logics and exert short- or long-range influences. On these bases, organizations make choices, from decoupling to radical shifts in logics, leading to severe institutional changes that become the matter of history. As much as organizations are influenced by events and the prevalent institutional logics, their choices trigger macro-level changes in a recursive manner. More broadly, we comment on how fruitful is our approach to historicize organization studies

Where Do Market Categories Come From and How? Distinguishing Category Creation from Category Emergence

R. DURAND, M. KHAIRE

Journal of Management

January 2017, vol. 43, n°1, pp.87-110

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: market category, category formation, strategic agency

http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2833208


This paper reviews several streams of research on market category formation. Most past research has largely focused on established category systems and the antecedents and consequences of categorical positioning (i.e. categorical purity vs. spanning; combination vs. replacement) but relatively ignored the formative processes leading to new categories. In this review, we address this lacuna to posit that scholarship would benefit from clearly disentangling category emergence from category creation. We analytically describe the differences between the two and elaborate the boundary conditions that guide and define which process is more likely to occur in a given market. Our review contributes to illuminating the role of organizational agency and strategic actions in market categories and their formation, which deserve greater attention due to their theoretical and practical implications

A Two-sided Matching Approach for Partner Selection and Assessing Complementarities in Partners’ Attributes in Inter-firm Alliances

D. MINDRUTA, M. MOEEN, R. AGARWAL

Strategic Management Journal

January 2016, vol. 37, n°1, pp.206-231

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Alliance formation, Partner selection, Matching models, Complementarities, Empirical methods

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2536109


Strategic alliances are undertaken to create value through complementarities of resources and capabilities of the partner firms. We develop a matching framework to study strategic alliances, taking a market perspective that explicitly incorporates key features of transactions in strategic alliances: two sided decision making in voluntary collaboration; quest for complementarities between indivisible and heterogeneous partner attributes; and competition on each side for partners on the other side. We assess the relative performance of matching models and binary choice models when estimating parameters within simulations based on a known functional relationship. Within the context of research alliances in the bio-pharmaceutical industry, we hypothesize and find support using the matching model framework for complementarity in partner size, and in upstream research capabilities

Category Spanning, Evaluation, and Performance: Revised Theory and Test on the Corporate Law Market

L. PAOLELLA, R. DURAND

Academy of Management Journal

February 2016, vol. 59, n°1, pp.330-351

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Categoryn Evaluation, Law firms, Mediation, Performance

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2648295


Studies suggest that category-spanning organizations receive lower evaluation and perform worse than organizations focused on a single category. We propose that (1) these effects are contingent on clients' theory of value and that as clients expect more sophisticated services, they tend to value category spanners more positively and (2) the evaluation of producers mediates the relationship between category spanning and performance. We test our hypotheses using original data on corporate legal services in three markets (London, New York City, and Paris) over the decade 2000-2010. We find that (1) category spanners receive a better evaluation, and more so when their categorical combination is more inclusive and (2) evaluation mediates significantly the relationship between category spanning and performance. This study enriches our understanding of how audiences apprehend a whole market category system and why organizations span categories

Classical Deviation: Organizational and Individual Status as Antecedents of Conformity

R. DURAND, P.-A. KREMP

Academy of Management Journal

February 2016, vol. 59, n°1, pp.65-89

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Conformity, Deviance, Institutional theory, Status

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2637981


Beside making organizations look like their peers through the adoption of similar attributes (which we call alignment), this paper highlights the fact that conformity also enables organizations to stand out by exhibiting highly salient attributes key to their field or industry (which we call conventionality). Building on the conformity and status literatures, and using the case of major U.S. symphony orchestras and the changes in their concert programing between 1879 and 1969, we hypothesize and find that middle-status organizations are more aligned, and middle-status individual leaders make more conventional choices than their low- and high-status peers. In addition, the extent to which middle-status leaders adopt conventional programming is moderated by the status of the organization and by its level of alignment. This paper offers a novel theory and operationalization of organizational conformity, and contributes to the literature on status effects, and more broadly to the understanding of the key issues of distinctiveness and conformity

Commercio Elettronico, Clausole Abusive e Lois De Police: Il Caso Expedia (Tribunal De Commerce De Paris, 7 Mai 2015)

M. M. WINKLER

Diritto del Commercio Internazionale

2016, vol. Anno XXX, n°Fasc. 2, pp.559-586

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Do Ratings of Firms Converge? Implications for Managers, Investors and Strategy Researchers

A. CHATTERJI, R. DURAND, D. LEVINE, S. TOUBOUL

Strategic Management Journal

aout 2016, vol. 37, n°8, pp.1597–1614

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, Ratings, Corporate governance, Socially responsible investing, Performance measurement

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2524861


Raters of firms play an important role in assessing domains ranging from sustainability to corporate governance to best places to work. Managers, investors, and scholars increasingly rely on these ratings to make strategic decisions, invest trillions of dollars in capital and study corporate social responsibility (CSR), guided by the implicit assumption that the ratings are valid. We document the surprising lack of agreement across social ratings from six well-established raters. These differences remain even when we adjust for explicit differences in the definition of CSR held by different raters, implying the ratings have low validity. Our results suggest that users of social ratings should exercise caution in interpreting their connection to actual CSR and that raters should conduct regular evaluations of their ratings

Employee Mobility and Organizational Outcomes: An Integrative Conceptual Framework and Research Agenda

J. K. MAWDSLEY, D. SOMAYA

Journal of Management

January 2016, vol. 42, n°1, pp.85-113

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Employee mobility, Human capital, Relational capital, Organizational outcomes


A large and growing literature spanning multiple fields has identified employee mobility as a critical influence on several important organizational outcomes. However, extant research on the topic is highly fragmented and lacks a unifying theoretical framework, impeding the development of a cumulative conceptually-integrated body of research. We seek to remedy this situation by undertaking a review of research on employee mobility and its organizational impacts, and casting it within a novel integrative conceptual framework. As a critical foundation for this framework, we highlight how the various organizational impacts of employee mobility are ultimately engendered by different dimensions of human and/or relational capital that are conveyed by mobile individuals. Building on this foundation, we describe how multi-level contextual factors – characterized as attributes of the employee, source and destination firms, and environmental conditions – may moderate the transfer and utilization of human and relational capital held by mobile individuals. Finally, we review how constraining factors, such as labor market imperfections on both demand and supply sides, can impede employee mobility, and also how alternative competing channels – for example, alliances, networks and geographic spillovers, and acquisitions – may be used for effectuating the same organizational impacts as mobility events. These constraints and competing channels are important because they circumscribe the conditions under which employee mobility can be a critical influence on organizational outcomes. We seek to provide a rich integrative theoretical understanding of employee mobility, and spur future research on important unanswered research questions

Logic combination and performance across occupational communities: The case of French film directors

R. DURAND, A. HADIDA

Journal of Business Research

July 2016, vol. 69, n°7, pp.2371–2379

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Logic combination, Cinema, Occupational community, Cultural entrepreneur, France

http://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/247283


This article analyzes the effects of logic combination on cultural entrepreneurs' performance in both their original (artistic) and new (business) occupational communities. An analysis of the impact of the director-producer logic combination on artistic and commercial performance in French cinema confirms an asymmetry in outcomes: (1) although performance in the original artistic community is impaired by repeated logic combination (receiving fewer awards), (2) performance in the new business community benefits from logic combination (increased box office returns) as long as directors remain close to the boundary separating their original and new occupational communities

Mandatory consumer arbitration in a transatlantic perspective: the US supreme court paves the (wrong) way

M. M. WINKLER

Revue de Droit des Affaires Internationales (RDAI) / International Business Law Journal (IBLJ)

2016, vol. 5, pp.519-536

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Arbitration; Comparative law; Consumer law; EU law; United States

https://www.iblj.com/abstract.htm?ref=52016519-536


Marketing as a Means to Transformative Social Conflict Resolution: Lessons from Transitioning War Economies and the Colombian Coffee Marketing System

A. BARRIOS, K. DE VALCK, C. SCHULTZ, O. SIBAI, K. HUSEMANN, M. MAXWELL-SMITH, M. K. LUEDICKE

Journal of Public Policy & Marketing

Fall 2016, vol. 35, n°2, pp.185-197

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Colombia, peace/war economy, social conflict, systemic analysis, transformation

http://journals.ama.org/doi/abs/10.1509/jppm.15.151


Social conflicts are ubiquitous to the human condition and occur throughout markets, marketing processes, and marketing systems. When unchecked or unmitigated, social conflict can have devastating consequences for consumers, marketers, and societies, especially when conflict escalates to war. In this article, the authors offer a systemic analysis of the Colombian war economy, with its conflicted shadow and coping markets, to show how a growing network of fair-trade coffee actors has played a key role in transitioning the country’s war economy into a peace economy. They particularly draw attention to the sources of conflict in this market and highlight four transition mechanisms—i.e., empowerment, communication, community building and regulation—through which marketers can contribute to peacemaking and thus produce mutually beneficial outcomes for consumers and society. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for marketing theory, practice, and public policy

Nudges: Better choices ?

M BOZZO-REY, A BRUNON-ERNST, A. VAN WAEYENBERGE

The Tocqueville Review / La revue Tocqueville

2016, vol. 37, n°1, pp.7-20

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)

https://muse.jhu.edu/article/626849/pdf


Performance Measurement in Global Governance: Ranking and the Politics of Variability

A. MEHRPOUYA, R. SAMIOLO

Accounting Organizations and Society

2016, vol. 55, pp.12-31

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Ranking; Epistemic work; Professional vision; Commensuration; Performance measurement; Regulatory capitalism

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0361368216300769


The past thirty years have witnessed the spread of rankings, ratings and league tables as governance technologies which aim to regulate the provision of public goods by means of market pressures. This paper examines the process of company analysis underlying the production of a ranking known as the Access to Medicine Index. We conceptualize the Index as a “regulatory ranking” with the explicit mission of addressing a perceived regulatory gap and market failure: the lack of access to medicine in the Global South. The Index, which ranks the world's largest pharmaceutical companies with regards to their access to medicine policies and practices, aspires to help address the problem of access to medicine through stakeholder consultation, transparency and competition. This study unbundles the epistemic work underlying the performance measurement process leading to the creation of the Index. We trace how the goal of stakeholder consensus, the need to project objectivity and the aspiration to govern through competition shape analysts' epistemic work. We discuss how through notions such as “the good distribution” and “aspirational indicators”, performance measurement and ranking become entangled in a “politics of variability” whereby company data need to be variably interpreted in order to optimise the possibilities of intervening in companies through competitive pressures, while at the same time complying with the imperatives to remain in the space of perceived stakeholder consensus and to provide a faithful representation of companies performance to inform public debates. We reflect on the challenges posed by these analysis processes for the regulatory aspirations of the ranking

Taking a Second Look in a Warped Crystal Ball: Explaining the Accuracy of Revised Forecasts

V. BACON-GERASYMENKO, R. COFF, R. DURAND

Journal of Management Studies

December 2016, vol. 53, n°8, pp.1292-1319

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Forecasting, Syndication, Value-adding commitment, Venture capital


The fundamental questions we address are whether firms with a higher initial forecasting ability are able to accurately revise the exit forecasts of their investments; and how co-investment partners and value-adding commitment with their investment influence the main effect. We explore these questions with novel and unique data collected via mixed research methods on venture capital firms’ forecasts of 114 portfolio companies. We find that venture capital firms that are better at making initial forecasts are less effective in revising their forecasts. In addition, while the number of co-investment partners positively moderate this relationship, venture capital firms’ value-adding commitment moderates it negatively. Our findings contribute to the literature on organizational forecasting as well as inter-organizational knowledge transfer and knowledge creation. They also provide novel insights into venture capital literature and practice

The Effect of Electronic Word of Mouth on Sales: A Meta-Analytic Review of Platform, Product, and Metric Factors

A. BABIC, F. SOTGIU, K. DE VALCK, T. H. A. BIJMOLT

Journal of Marketing Research

June 2016, vol. 53, n°3, pp.297-318

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Electronic word of mouth, Online platforms, Social media, eWOM metrics, Meta-analysis


The increasing amount of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has significantly affected the way consumers make purchase decisions. Empirical studies have established an effect of eWOM on sales but disagree on which online platforms, products, and eWOM metrics moderate this effect. The authors conduct a meta-analysis of 1,532 effect sizes across 96 studies covering 40 platforms and 26 product categories. On average, eWOM is positively correlated with sales (.091), but its effectiveness differs across platform, product, and metric factors. For example, the effectiveness of eWOM on social media platforms is stronger when eWOM receivers can assess their own similarity to eWOM senders, whereas these homophily details do not influence the effectiveness of eWOM for e-commerce platforms. In addition, whereas eWOM has a stronger effect on sales for tangible goods new to the market, the product life cycle does not moderate the eWOM effectiveness for services. With respect to the eWOM metrics, eWOM volume has a stronger impact on sales than eWOM valence. In addition, negative eWOM does not always jeopardize sales, but high variability does

What determines crime rates? An empirical test of integrated economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior

P. ENGELEN, M. LANDER, M. VAN ESSEN

The Social Science Journal

June 2016, vol. 53, n°2, pp.247-262

Departments: Management & Human Resources, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Crime, Property crime, Violent crime, Deterrence, Integrated model


Research on crime has by no means reached a definitive conclusion on which factors are related to crime rates. We contribute to the crime literature by providing an integrated empirical model of economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior and by using a very comprehensive set of economic, social as well as demographic explanatory variables. We use panel data techniques to estimate this integrated crime model for property and violent crime using the entire population of all 100 counties in North Carolina for the years 2001–2005. Both fields contribute to the explanatory power of the integrated model. Our results support the economic explanation of crime with respect to the deterrent effect of the probabilities of arrest and imprisonment concerns, as well as the time allocation model of criminal activities. In contrast, the integrated model seems to reject the impact of the severity of punishment on crime levels. With respect to the sociological theories of crime, we find most support for the social disorganization theory and for the routine activity theory. Finally, we find differences between property and violent crimes, mostly explained by the sociological models.

You Can’t Bribe a Computer: Dealing with the Societal Challenge of Corruption Through ICT

S. C. SRIVASTAVA, T. S. H. TEO, S. DEVARAJ

MIS Quarterly

June 2016, vol. 40, n°2, pp.511-526

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Corruption, e-govenrment, Institutions, ICT impact, Base corruption, Permeated corruption, Stakeholder service systems


Despite the influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on enhancing transparency and fairness, there is limited theoretical understanding of how ICT affects corruption. Adopting an institutional perspective, we conceptualize the mechanisms through which e-government influences corruption in a nation. Specifically, we theorize the relationship between e-government and corruption at two levels: (1) base corruption observed in national institutions (political, legal, and media institutions), and (2) permeated corruption in the national stakeholder service systems (business and citizen systems). Using panel data from 63 countries over a 4-year period, we test the direct and mediated effects of e-government on corruption in national institutions and stakeholder service systems, respectively. This exploratory study provides preliminary insights into the mechanisms through which corruption manifests in a nation and demonstrates how e-govenrment can be helpful in alleviating it. In addition, the study offers important implications that we believe will be instrumental in stimulating future research on the subject

Are We Lost in Translation? The Impact of Using Translated IFRS on Decision-Making

G. HOLTHOFF, F. HOOS, B. E. WEISSENBERGER

Accounting in Europe

2015, vol. 12, n°1, pp.107-125

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Translation, Language, Decision-making

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17449480.2015.1052824


International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are issued in English and subsequently translated into a multitude of languages to make them accessible to non-English-speaking IFRS users. In an international work context, IFRS users apply either the original English version or a translated version of an IFRS standard to input information presented in different languages. While research has reported numerous challenges inherent in IFRS translation, we know very little about the actual impact of using different languages on decision-making. Based on a series of 2 × 2 between-subjects experiments with German students who possessed different levels of accounting knowledge, we investigate the influence of language on decision-making. Our experimental manipulations entail the language of the accounting standard used (English vs. German) and the language of the input case information (English vs. German). Our German participants made decisions about a series of cases relating to IAS 24 Related Party Disclosures. Based on an expert benchmark solution for the cases, we determine the quality of participants’ decisions. We find that the use of IAS 24 in the participants’ mother tongue (German) has a positive impact on decision-making quality. We also find some support for a positive influence of the native language of the input case information relative to English input case information. Moreover, participants’ accounting knowledge and English language skill are positively associated with decision-making quality

Asset Divestment as a Response to Media Attacks in Stigmatized Industries

R. DURAND, J.-P. VERGNE

Strategic Management Journal

August 2015, vol. 36, n°8, pp.1205-1223

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Stigma, Impression management, Divestment, Media, Categories, Reputation, Defense industry

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2415019


In stigmatized industries characterized by social contestation, hostile audiences, and distancing between industry insiders and outsiders, firms facing media attacks follow different strategies from firms in uncontested industries. Because firms avoid publicizing their tainted-sector membership, when threatened, they can respond by divesting assets from that industry. Our analyses of the arms industry demonstrate that media attacks on the focal firm and its peers both increase the likelihood of divestment for the focal firm. Specifically, attacks on the focal firm are the most consequential, followed by attacks on peers in the same industry subcategory, and by attacks on peers in different subcategories. These findings shed new light on divestment as a response to media attacks in stigmatized industries and lead us to rethink impression management theory

Bridging the Service Divide Through Digitally Enabled Service Innovations: Evidence from Indian Healthcare Service Providers

S. C. SRIVASTAVA, G. SHAINESH

MIS Quarterly

March 2015, vol. 39, n°1, pp.245-264

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Developing countries, Digital divide, Healthcare, India, Institutions, Process view, Service divide, Service innovation, Service science, Service systems, Social entrepreneurship, Society


The digital divide is usually conceptualized through goods-dominant logic, where bridging the divide entails providing digital goods to disadvantaged segments of the population. This is expected to enhance their digital capabilities and thus to have a positive influence on the digital outcomes (or services) experienced. In contrast, this study is anchored in an alternative service-dominant logic and posits that viewing the divide from a service perspective might be better suited to the context of developing countries, where there is a huge divide across societal segments in accessing basic services such as healthcare and education. This research views the prevailing differences in the level of services consumed by different population segments (service divide) as the key issue to be addressed by innovative digital tools in developing countries. The study posits that information and communication technologies (ICTs) can be leveraged to bridge the service divide to enhance the capabilities of service-disadvantaged segments of society. But such service delivery requires an innovative assembly of ICT as well as non-ICT resources. Building on concepts from service-dominant logic and service science, this paper aims to understand how such service innovation efforts can be orchestrated. Specifically, adopting a process view, two Indian enterprises that have developed sustainable telemedicine healthcare service delivery models for the rural population in India are examined. The study traces the configurations of three interactional resources—knowledge, technology, and institutions—through which value-creating user-centric objectives of increasing geographical access and reducing cost are achieved. The theoretical contributions are largely associated with unearthing and understanding how the three interactional resources were orchestrated for service-centric value creation in different combinative patterns as resource exploitation, resource combination, and value reinforcement. The analysis also reveals the three distinct stages of service innovation evolution (idea and launch, infancy and early growth, and late growth and expansion), with a distinct shift in the dominant resource for each stage. Through an inductive process, the study also identifies four key enablers for successfully implementing these ICT-enabled service innovations: obsessive customer empathy, belief in the transformational power of ICT, continuous recursive learning, and efficient network orchestration.

Competition and The Operational Performance of Hospitals: The Role of Hospital Objectives

D. ANDRITSOS, S. AFLAKI

Production and Operations Management

November 2015, vol. 24, n°11, pp.1812–1832

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Hospitals, For-profit healthcare, Non-profit healthcare, Queueing models, Service provider competition

http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2446397


We examine the effect of a hospital's objective (i.e., non-profit versus for-profit) in hospital markets for elective care. Using game-theoretic analysis and queueing models to capture the operational performance of hospitals, we compare the equilibrium behavior of three market settings in terms of such criteria as waiting times and the total patient cost from waiting and hospital care payments. In the first setting, patients are served exclusively by a single non-profit hospital; in the second, patients are served by two competing non-profit hospitals. In our third setting, the market is served by one non-profit hospital and one for-profit hospital. A non-profit hospital provides free care to patients, although they may have to wait; for-profit hospitals charge a fee to provide care with minimal waiting. A comparison of the first two settings reveals that competition can hamper a hospital's ability to attain economies of scale and can also increase waiting times. A comparison between the second and third settings indicates that, when the public funder is not financially constrained, the presence of a for-profit sector may allow the funder to lower both the financial costs of providing coverage and the total costs to patients. Our analysis suggests that the public funder should exercise caution when using policy tools that support the for-profit sector -- for example, patient subsidies -- because such tools may increase patient costs in the long run; it might be preferable to raise the level of reimbursement to the non-profit sector.

C’era una Volta Kiobel: I Giudici Americani Tornano a Pronunciarsi sull’Extraterritorialità dell’Alien Tort Statute [Once Upon a Time, It Was Kiobel: American Courts Come Back to the Extraterritorialità of the Alien Tort Statute]

M. M. WINKLER, M. M. PORCELLUZZI

Diritto del Commercio Internazionale

2015, vol. 29, n°3, pp.885-906

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)

https://www.academia.edu/19607863/Cera_una_volta_Kiobel_i_giudici_americani_tornano_a_pronunciarsi_sullextraterritorialit%C3%A0_dellAlien_Tort_Statute


Défis au Bas de la Pyramide

B. GARRETTE, A. KOZAN, T. ROULET

Management International

Spring 2015, vol. 19, n°3, pp.65-82

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Bas de la Pyramide, Entreprises multinationales, Ethique des affaires, ONGs, Développement économique, Base of the Pyramid, MNEs, Business ethics, NGOs, Economic development


Is « Base of the Pyramid » (BoP) the new Eldorado for companies or only « smoke and mirrors »? It is extremely challenging for companies to make profits through offering products and services to the world’s poorest populations, while supposedly tackling social or environmental issues. This article nevertheless aims to show that companies need to push on their initiatives at the BoP. We propose solutions to get over economic, social and political obstacles facing companies’ BoP initiatives and discuss the crucial role of these initiatives in terms of innovation and growth

Effects of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) in Research and Innovation: Indirect Legislation in EU Policy-Making?

A. VAN WAEYENBERGE, A. BRUNON-ERNST

Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law

2015, vol. 47, n°1, pp.22-38

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: legal philosophy, European union, Jeremy Bentham, indirect legislation, pragmatic approach, research and innovation


This study offers new insights on the open method of coordination (OMC) of the European Union (EU) by focusing on the effects of this new method for producing EU regulation. The starting points here are that the OMC is not a radically new method of governance, and that it must be seen as an application of the theory of indirect legislation – as developed by Bentham. With the concept of indirect legislation, Bentham thinks a system of governing individuals that does not rest only on the fear of legal punishment, but is backed by the prospect of rewards and the fear of public censure. For the purpose of the comparison between the OMC and indirect legislation, the latter is considered as a system of social control, which – whether it be categorised as legal or not – is first and foremost normative and has effects, i.e. is applied, followed and enforced in a given community without resorting to the binding force of the law. Thanks to the input of indirect legislation, this study aims to understand what have been the real effects of the OMC and more particularly of the OMC applied to the research and innovation policy in Belgium

How Schlumberger Achieved Networked Information Leadership by Transitioning to a Product-Platform Software Architecture

J. J. NEHME, S. C. SRIVASTAVA, Horacio BOUZAS, L. CARCASSET

MIS Quarterly Executive

September 2015, vol. 14, n°3, pp.105-124

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

http://misqe.org/ojs2/index.php/misqe/article/view/589


To sustain its competitive position as the leader in providing information solutions to the oil and gas industry, Schlumberger transitioned to a cutting-edge product-platform software architecture by embedding a leading geological modeling software product—Petrel—within Ocean, its collaborative open software platform. The practices it used to overcome the challenges of the transition give rise to three principles that can be leveraged by other companies

I used to work at Goldman Sachs! How firms benefit from organizational status in the market for human capital

M. BIDWELL, S. WON, R. BARBULESCU, E. MOLLICK

Strategic Management Journal

August 2015, vol. 36, n°8, pp.1164-1173

Departments: Management & Human Resources, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Organizational status, Rent appropriation, Careers, Human capital, Investment banking industry

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2440404


How does employer status benefit firms in the market for general human capital? On the one hand, high status employers are better able to attract workers, who value the signal of ability that employment at those firms provides. On the other hand, that same signal can help workers bid up wages and capture the value of employers' status. Exploring this tension, we argue that high status firms are able to hire higher ability workers than other firms, and do not need to pay them the full value of their ability early in the career, but must raise wages more rapidly than other firms as those workers accrue experience. We test our arguments using unique survey data on careers in investment banking

I used to work at Goldman Sachs! How firms benefit from organizational status in the market for human capital

M. BIDWELL, S. WON, R. BARBULESCU, E. MOLLICK

Strategic Management Journal

aout 2015, vol. 36, n°8, pp.1164-1173

Departments: Management & Human Resources, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Organizational status, Rent appropriation, Careers, Human capital, Investment banking industry

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2440404


How does employer status benefit firms in the market for general human capital? On the one hand, high status employers are better able to attract workers, who value the signal of ability that employment at those firms provides. On the other hand, that same signal can help workers bid up wages and capture the value of employers’ status. Exploring this tension, we argue that high status firms are able to hire higher ability workers than other firms, and do not need to pay them the full value of their ability early in the career, but must raise wages more rapidly than other firms as those workers accrue experience. We test our arguments using unique survey data on careers in investment banking

Innovating for the future: charting the innovation agenda for firms in developing countries

S. C. SRIVASTAVA

Journal of Indian Business Resarch

2015, vol. 7, n°4, pp.314 - 320

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Developing countries, Augmented, Developed countries, Good-enough, Innovation strategy, Jugaad


Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to identify the four principles for firms in developing countries to enhance and augment their innovation agenda for staying competitive. With increasing globalization, firms need to continually calibrate and realign their innovation strategies to remain competitive. Although many firms in the developed countries are making sustained efforts to adopt the developing world perspective on innovation, similar efforts by firms in developing countries to reorient their innovation strategies to the developed world are minimal. In the long run, this might erode the competitiveness of firms in developing countries. Leveraging the global innovation strategy framework, the paper suggests four principles that can help developing country firms transition from a local to a global innovation strategy. Specifically, the paper exhorts developing country firms to move from a “good-enough” innovation approach to an “augmented” innovation philosophy that aims to serve the latent needs of the users. The four principles suggested for the developing country firms to further their innovation agenda are: invest in research; learn to fail; be patient; and alliance and acquire.Design/methodology/approach– The paper uses prior literature and frameworks to identify the four principles that firms in developing countries should follow for furthering their innovation agenda with a view to becoming global in their approach.Findings– The four principles suggested for the developing country firms to further their innovation agenda are: invest in research; learn to fail; be patient; and alliance and acquire.Originality/value– The paper identifies the four principles for firms in developing countries to enhance and augment their innovation agenda for staying competitive.

Instituting a transnational accountability regime: The case of Sovereign Wealth Funds and “GAPP”

A. MEHRPOUYA

Accounting Organizations and Society

July 2015, vol. 44, pp.15-36

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)


This paper analyses the development of a transnational accountability regime, – the Generally Accepted Principles and Practices (GAPP), introduced in 2008 for sovereign wealth funds. Facilitated by the International Monetary Fund, the regime aimed to improve the transparency, governance and accountability of these government-owned investment funds that originate primarily from the Middle East and Asia. I focus here on the struggles leading to the establishment of the boundaries of the GAPP accountability regime by diagnosing the accountability problem, determining the providers and the imagined users of the accounts and defining the appropriate course of action. I then analyse the struggles involved in negotiating the process and technologies used to establish the accountability relationship including the role of standards in accounting, audit and risk management, as well as transparency and compliance pressures. In each case I identify the different ideas or templates that emerged during the negotiations and how consensus was achieved through careful steering by a core coalition comprising the US Treasury and the largest, most legitimate funds. I highlight the need to go beyond typical fault lines in debates surrounding the origins of global governance regimes (e.g. local vs. global, western vs. non-western, core vs. peripheral) by focusing on emerging coalitions of local/global and western/non-western actors that increasingly drive such regimes. I show how the disproportionate representation of financial actors in such coalitions leads to less attention to questions of public accountability, and instead focusing such regimes on financial accountability. I further elaborate on the implications of the fall-back to transparency in transnational accountability regimes as a last resort and the types of resistance emerging against it

La mise en place d'une fonction d'audit interne dans l'administration centrale d’État et le possible renouvellement des services de contrôle

L. CELERIER

Revue Française d'Administration Publique

April 2015, n°153

Departments: GREGHEC (CNRS)


La protection juridictionnelle effective en Europe ou l’histoire d’une procession d’Echternach

Louise FROMONT, A. VAN WAEYENBERGE

Cahiers de Droit Européen

2015, vol. 51, n°1, pp.113-150

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)

http://fr.bruylant.larciergroup.com/titres/133578_2/cahiers-de-droit-europeen-2015-1.html


Legal indicators, global law and legal pluralism: an introduction

D. RESTREPO AMARILES

The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law

March 2015, vol. 47, n°1, pp.9-21

Departments: Tax & Law

Keywords: Mathematical turn, Global law, Indicators, Management


This article explores the development of legal metrics by focusing on the links between legal indicators, global law and legal pluralism. In particular, it addresses the question of the performative role that legal indicators convey in a situation of legal pluralism in global law. First, I argue that indicators are not only a set of socio-legal research methods conducted periodically and systematically with the aim of describing the evolution of a socio-legal reality over time. From a pluralistic perspective, indicators are also devices factually constraining the behaviour of individuals and institutions at different geographical scales. I show that as legal indicators become entrenched in managerial modes of governance, they adopt the role of performance measures. As such, they bridge the factual, normative and behavioural dimensions of social normativity. They rely on data gathering, benchmarking and auditing practices to attempt framing legally relevant behaviour. Second, I argue that legal indicators are triggering a mathematical turn in legal thinking, and so transforming the analytical dimension of legal analysis. The mathematical reasoning underpinning indicators increasingly attempts to supersede, in practice, linguistic and conceptual modes of legal reasoning in the mission of constructing legal concepts, relating them to one another and giving them sense in a specific context. In brief, this article attempts to show that legal indicators are introducing to the legal field a set of practices which are central to any contemporary approach to public and private management, transforming en passant, the way we experience, see and think about law in the context of globalisation

Mesures à vocation extraterritoriale et lois de police: un revers à l'hégémonie juridique outre-Atlantique?

M. M. WINKLER, A. LACOMBE

Recueil Dalloz

2015, vol. 2015, n°21, pp.1260-1263

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Conflit de lois, Contrat et obligations, Loi applicable, Embargo à destination de l’Iran, Loi de police

http://www.dalloz.fr/documentation/Document?id=RECUEIL/CHRON/2015/0612


En application de l’article 9 du règlement « Rome I » il ne peut être donné effet à une loi de police étrangère que s’il s’agit d’une loi de police du lieu d’exécution du contrat et si cette loi de police rend illégale l’exécution du contrat. En l’espèce, sans avoir à se prononcer sur la qualification de loi de police des dispositions du code des réglementations fédérales (CFR), instituant un embargo sur les exportations à destination de l’Iran, la cour ne peut donner d’effet à la loi américaine, qui n’est ni une loi de police française, ni une loi de police iranienne

Participatory Budgeting at a Community Level in Porto Alegre: a Bourdieusian Interpretation

L. E. CUENCA BOTEY, L. CELERIER

Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal

2015, vol. 28, n°5, pp.739-772

Departments: GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Brazil, Democracy, Bourdieu, Accountability, Emancipation, Participatory budgeting


PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to explore how accountability practices can enable sociopolitical emancipation.Design/methodology/approachThe authors explore the emancipatory potential of accountability from a Bourdieusian perspective. The study is informed by a two-month socio-ethnographic study of the participatory budgeting (PB) process in Porto Alegre (Brazil). The field study enabled us to observe accountability and participatory practices, conduct 18 semi-structured interviews with councillors, and analyze survey data gathered from budgeting participants.FindingsThe paper demonstrates how PB both strengthened the dominants in the Porto Alegrense political field and changed the game played in this field; was characterized by accountability practices favouring the election of councillors with distinctive capitals, who were “dominated-dominants dominating the dominated” ; brought emancipatory perspectives to councillors and, by doing so, opened the path to social change but also widened the gap with ordinary participants.Research limitations/implicationThe research supports Shenkin and Coulson’s (2007) thesis by demonstrating that accountability, when associated with participative democracy, can create substantial social change. Significantly, by investigating the emancipatory potential of accountability, the authors challenge the often taken-for-granted assumption in critical research that accountability reinforces asymmetrical power relations, and the authors explore alternative accountability practices. Doing so enables us to rethink the possibilities of accountability and their practical implications.Originality/valueThe authors study the most emblematic example of participatory democracy in South America; and the authors use Bourdieu’s theoretical framework to approach accountability at a community level.

Peer conformity, attention, and heterogeneous implementation of practices in MNEs

R. DURAND, A. JACQUEMINET

Journal of International Business Studies

October-November 2015, vol. 46, n°8, pp.917-937

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Multinational corporations (MNCs) and enterprises (MNEs), Institutional theory, Corporate social responsibility, Practice implementation, Attention, Simultaneous equation modeling

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2638422


How do subsidiaries respond to normative demands from both their headquarters and local external constituents? We propose that subsidiaries pay varying levels of attention to either demands depending on their peers’ norm-conforming behavior, resulting in heterogeneous practice implementation. We study the implementation of 25 practices, associated with three corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues in 101 worldwide subsidiaries of a multinational enterprise (MNE). Consistent with the idea that attention is limited and therefore selective, we find that external peers' conformity to the CSR norm directs subsidiaries’ attention toward the CSR-related demands of external constituents at the expense of the demands from the headquarters. However, internal peers’ conformity increases attention to both external and headquarters’ demands related to CSR. As higher attention levels result in higher practice implementation, internal and external peers' conformity drives the heterogeneity of practice implementation in the MNE. Our results suggest the need to rethink the influence of peers’ conformity on subsidiaries’ implementation of practices, as it not only triggers mimicry based on legitimacy but also and simultaneously a more strategic response based on internal and external competitive threats and attention allocation.

Projecting Different Identities: A Longitudinal Study of the 'Whipsaw' Effects of Changing Leadership Discourse About the Triple Bottom Line

J. BAYLE-CORDIER, P. MIRVIS, B. MOINGEON

Journal of Applied Behavioral Science

September 2015, vol. 51, n°3, pp.336-374

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Leadership, Corporate social responsibility, Triple bottom line, Mergers & acquisitions, Managerial discourse, Projected identity

http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2496804


This paper focuses on changes in leadership’s discourse about the "triple bottom line" in Ben & Jerry’s ice cream from its founding days through to its acquisition by and integration into Unilever. For this study, we analyzed CEO claims about "who we are" from their letters in annual reports (what we label projected identity). A sample of employees (both long-service and relative newcomers) were interviewed about their perceptions of B&J’s over the thirty years covered.Findings reveal that successive CEO’s stressed different "logics" about the business and what would make it successful over the years with the founders emphasizing a strong linkage between the economic, product, and social components of the company’s triple bottom line and their next three successors decoupling these components and pushing, each in different ways, for stronger financial returns. As a result, organization members were "whipsawed" between their CEOs’ different logics and identity claims.The CEO letters exhibit a progression over time from a more normative to utilitarian tone familiar in the organizational identity literature. The messaging shifts, however, when a fifth CEO takes charge and re-integrates the firm’s triple bottom line. Thus the firm’s projected identity evolved in a U pattern starting with an integrated triple bottom line logic, shifting to a more linear logic where the economic mission dominates, and then reintegration where multiple bottom lines are embraced once again.Here we explore both the strategic (external) and personal (internal) challenges informing the different CEOs’ messages over years, the whipsaw effect on staff, and the longer term evolution of projected identity in the company and reemergence of its integrated triple bottom line. This study contributes to the CSR and organization identity literatures by documenting how CEO’s (and their company) must struggle with maintaining an integrated triple bottom line in the context of commercial challenges and major changes involved in M&A. It also speaks to the practical matters of keeping normative traditions alive amidst competing pressures for change

Putting Communication Front and Center in Institutional Theory and Analysis

J. CORNELISSEN, R. DURAND, P. FISS, J. C. LAMMERS, E. VAARA

Academy of Management Review

January 2015, vol. 40, n°1, pp.10-27

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Communication, Organizational change, Institutional theory (Sociology), Cognition, Linguistics, Social interaction, Frames (Social sciences), Discourse theory (Communication), Performative (Philosophy), Categorization (Psychology)

http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=ec9ea683-db21-4a84-aa7b-78002d021f00%40sessionmgr4003&vid=0&hid=4104&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=100212120


We conceptualize the roots of cognitive, linguistic, and communicative theories of institutions and outline the promise and potential of a stronger communication focus for institutional theory. In particular, we outline a theoretical approach that puts communication at the heart of theories of institutions, institutional maintenance, and change, and we label this approach communicative institutionalism. We then provide a brief introduction to the set of articles contained in the Special Topic Forum on Communication, Cognition, and Institutions and describe the innovative theorizing of these articles in the directionWe conceptualize the roots of cognitive, linguistic, and communicative theories of institutions and outline the promise and potential of a stronger communication focus for institutional theory. In particular, we outline a theoretical approach that puts communication at the heart of theories of institutions, institutional maintenance, and change, and we label this approach communicative institutionalism. We then provide a brief introduction to the set of articles contained in the Special Topic Forum on Communication, Cognition, and Institutions and describe the innovative theorizing of these articles in the direction of communicative theories of institutions. Finally, we sketch a research agenda and further steps and possibilities for theory and research integrating communication and institutions of communicative theories of institutions. Finally, we sketch a research agenda and further steps and possibilities for theory and research integrating communication and institutions.

Reaching the Rich World's Poorest Consumers

M. YUNUS, F. DALSACE, D. MENASCE, B. FAIVRE TAVIGNOT

Harvard Business Review

March 2015, vol. 93, n°3, pp.46-53

Departments: Marketing, Strategy & Business Policy

https://hbr.org/2015/03/reaching-the-rich-worlds-poorest-consumers


Research on information systems failures and successes: Status update and future directions

Y. K. DWIVEDI, D. WASTELL, S. LAUMER, H. Z. HENRIKSEN, M. D. MYERS, D. BUNKER, A. ELBANNA, M. RAVISHANKAR, S. C. SRIVASTAVA

Information Systems Frontiers

February 2015, vol. 17, n°1, pp.143-157

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: IS success, IS failure, IS implementation, Work systems, Technochange, Change management


Information systems success and failure are among the most prominent streams in IS research. Explanations of why some IS fulfill their expectations, whereas others fail, arecomplex and multi-factorial. Despite the efforts to understand the underlying factors, the IS failure rate remains stubbornly high. A Panel session was held at the IFIP Working Group 8.6 conference in Bangalore in 2013 which forms the subject of this Special Issue. Its aim was to reflect on the need for new perspectives and research directions, to provide insights and further guidance for managers on factors enabling IS successand avoiding IS failure. Several key issues emerged, such as the need to study problems from multiple perspectives, to move beyond narrow considerations of the IT artifact, and to venture into underexplored organizational contexts, such as the public sector

Sanctioning in the Wild: Rational Calculus and Retributive Instincts in Gourmet Cuisine

G. DI STEFANO, A. KING, G. VERONA

Academy of Management Journal

June 2015, vol. 58, n°3, pp.906-931

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Cooperation, Sanctioning, Reciprocity, Retribution, Field experiment, Knowledge transfer

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2551435


Why do we sanction norm violations? Despite near universal agreement on the role of sanctions for maintaining norms of cooperation, scholars hotly dispute whether individuals sanction based on a rational calculus or because of strong retributive instincts. In this paper we report on a mixed-method field study examining sanctioning behavior. Our goal is to extend theories of sanctioning by evaluating the conditions under which individuals are more likely to administer a sanction in response to a norm violation. To guide the development of our hypotheses, we engage in a qualitative examination of sanctioning decisions in the context of gourmet cuisine. We then test our predictions in a field experiment involving more than 500 gourmet chefs in Italy. Our results suggest that individuals follow retributive instincts, but they also engage in cost/benefit calculations. Indeed, we find that the two logics of sanctioning jointly influence participation in social exchange. Recognizing their own tendency to sanction at a cost, individuals avoid circumstances that could trigger the need for costly sanctions

Social Control in Online Communities of Consumption: A Framework for Community Management

O. SIBAI, K. DE VALCK, A. FARRELL, J. M. RUDD

Psychology and Marketing

March 2015, vol. 32, n°3, pp.250-264

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Online communities of consumption (OCCs) represent highly diverse groups of consumers whose interests are not always aligned. Social control in OCCs aims to effectively manage problems arising from this heterogeneity. Extant literature on social control in OCCs is fragmented as some studies focus on the principles of social control, while others focus on the implementation. Moreover, the domain is undertheorized. This article integrates the disparate literature on social control in OCCs providing a first unified conceptualization of the topic. The authors conceptualize social control as a system, or configuration, of moderation practices. Moderation practices are executed during interactions operating under different governance structures (market, hierarchy, and clan) and serving different purposes (interaction initiation, maintenance, and termination). From this conceptualization, important areas of future research emerge and research questions are developed. The framework also serves as a community management tool for OCC managers, enabling the diagnosis of social control problems and the elaboration of strategies and tactics to address them

Technostress creators and job outcomes: theorising the moderating influence of personality traits

S. C. SRIVASTAVA, S. CHANDRA, A. SHIRISH

Information Systems Journal

july 2015, vol. 25, n°4, pp.355-401

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Technostress creators, Personality, Transactional model of stress and coping, Eustress, Job burnout, Job engagement


Although prior research has examined the influence of technostress creators on job outcomes, insights into the influence of personality traits on the perceptions of technostress creators and their consequent impacts on job outcomes are rather limited. Such insights would enable a deeper understanding about the effects of individual differences on salient job-related outcomes. In this research, by leveraging the distinctions in personality traits offered by the big five personality traits in the five-factor model and grounding the research in the transactional model of stress and coping, we theorise the moderating influence of personality traits on the relationships between technostress creators and job outcomes, namely job burnout and job engagement. Specifically, the study theorises the mechanisms through which each of the specific personality traits openness-to-experience, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness and extraversion interacts with technostress creators to differently influence job burnout and job engagement. We test the proposed model in a field study based on a survey of senior organisational managers who regularly use information and communication technologies for executing professional tasks. Although technostress creators are generally associated with negative job outcomes, our results also show that for individuals with certain personality traits, technostress creators may result in positive job outcomes. The study thus contributes to the technostress literature, specifically by incorporating the salient role of individual differences. The study also provides insights for managers who should pay special attention to allocating specific job roles to employees with particular personality traits in order to optimise job-related outcomes

The Importance of the Chief Audit Executive's Communication: Experimental Evidence on Internal Auditors' Judgments in a ‘Two Masters Setting’

F. HOOS, N. KOCHETOVA-KOZLOSKI, A.-C. D'ARCY

International Journal of Auditing

November 2015, vol. 19, n°3, pp.166-181

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Corporate governance, Internal audit, Internal control, Audit judgment

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2673253


The position of an internal audit function (IAF) as a ‘servant of two masters’ (i.e., management and the audit committee) may lead to a conflict of priorities. In this setting, the tone at the top set by the Chief Audit Executive (CAE) plays a critical role in balancing the potentially competing priorities of the ‘two masters’. We test twohypotheses in a mixed experimental design with the communicated preferences of the CAE to subordinates (cost reduction vs. effectiveness of internal controls) as a between-subjects factor, and levels of ambiguity (low, medium, high) manipulated within-subjects. Findings suggest that the emphasis in the CAE’s message can influence internal auditors’ judgments, and such influence is more pronounced when task ambiguity is high, resulting in the elimination of a significantly greater number of internal controls and the design of less effective processes. We discuss implications of our results for modern IAFs and the role of the CAE

The Intentions with Which the Road is Paved: Attitudes to Liberalism as Determinants of Greenwashing

T. ROULET, S. TOUBOUL

Journal of Business Ethics

May 2015, vol. 128, n°2, pp.305-320

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy

Keywords: Corporate social actions, Greenwashing, Economic liberalism, Competition, Individual responsibility, Country-level institutions

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2401072


Previous literature has shown contradictory results regarding the relationship between economic liberalism at the country level and firms’ engagement in corporate social action. Because liberalism is associated with individualism, it is often assumed that firms will engage in mostly symbolic rather than substantive social and environmental actions; in other words, they will practice 'greenwashing'. To understand how cultural beliefs in the virtues of liberalism affect the likelihood of greenwashing, we disentangle the effects of the distinct and co-existing beliefs in the virtues of economic liberalism. We begin by conducting an exploratory qualitative analysis of managers’ sentiments on this matter, based on a focus group methodology. We then use these investigative elements to articulate a comparison of the conflicting theoretical arguments: in liberal contexts, are firms, as social entities, inherently selfish or pro-active when it comes to corporate social actions? We empirically test our hypotheses on a large-scale dataset. Finally, we show paradoxically that in countries where beliefs in the virtues of competition are strong, firms are more likely to greenwash, while in countries where beliefs in the virtues of individual responsibility are prominent, firms are more likely to focus on concrete actions. These findings suggest that in contexts where weak governments are seen as ideal, firms might feel the need to step in to fill institutional voids, in contexts in which competitive mindsets dominate, this tendency is counterbalanced

The Sanctity of Borderland: The Ukraine-Related Sanction Programs

M. M. WINKLER, F. MONTANARO

Diritto del Commercio Internazionale

2015, vol. 1, pp.239-257

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)


In October 2014 the Russian press agency ITAR-TASS has published a curious table picturing the Russian business entities targeted with international economic sanctions in relation to the political crisis in Ukraine (1). The table shows that these entities change depending on the country enacting the sanctions. For example Gazprombank, the third largest Russian bank, is targeted by the United States, the European Union, and Canada, while Bank Rossiya, which is the private bank of President Putin’s inner circle, is not subject to any sanction by the EU (2). By the same token, no sanction is established by the EU against privately owned companies, while the US, Canada and Australia target some, like Rosneft, the world’s largest oil producer. Moreover, while the EU addresses some entities making business in Crimea, like the sea transport company Sevastopol Commercial Seaport, the US does it only marginally, and so do Canada and Australia. Finally, only the US is active against companies operating in the military sector; in this regard, the EU targets only Concern Almaz-Antey, a firm specialized in anti-aircraft defence systems. As a whole, the table raises concerns as to the effectiveness of these «targeted sanctions», when they work in such an intermittent fashion.At the center of our analysis stand the economic sanctions adopted against certain private subjects participating in the uprising of the Eastern part of Ukraine against Kyiv’s central government (3). These sanctions are grounded on the alleged violation of the «sanctity» of Ukrainian borders—a quite curious qualification, though, given that Ukraine’s name itself means, in fact, «on the edge», «borderland» (4). If these sanctions represent the typical reaction to violations of international law perpetrated by the Russian Federation, why are they applied selectively? Which are the policies behind the choice of targeting one entity but not another? Arguably, a lack of coordination globally might ultimately frustrate the sanctions’ genuine goals and create inconsistencies in their enforcement.This article examines the reasons and consequences of such lack of coordination (5). It proceeds along with three lines. First, it investigates the factual premises that triggered the adoption of targeted sanctions (§ 2); second, it delineates the scope and effects of the targeted sanction regimes elaborated in the US and the EU (§ 3); finally, it highlights some flaws in the sanctions regimes as a whole (§ 4). In doing this, it tries to challenge the common impression that no one is doing anything with the Ukrainian crisis: someone is definitely doing something about the violations committed against Ukraine’s territorial integrity. The problem, yet, is that the system continues to be imperfect due to the existing differences among States in approaching individual targeted sanctions

The Strength of Many Kinds of Ties: Unpacking the Role of Social Contacts Across Stages of the Job Search Process

R. BARBULESCU

Organization Science

July-August 2015, vol. 26, n°4, pp.1040-1058

Departments: Management & Human Resources, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Job search, Stage process, Matching, External labor market, Careers, Mobility, Managerial jobs, MBA, Occupations, Social contacts, Social networks, Tie strength, Network range


The topic of job mobility has received increasing attention in recent years. Yet, surprising in light of the wealth ofresearch on social networks and job attainment, we do not have a unified model of the impact of different kinds ofsocial contacts on job search success. In this paper I show that contacts are differently beneficial for job seekers depending on the stage of the job search process that job seekers are engaged in. Specifically, three stages of the job search process can be distinguished in which social contacts fulfill different roles for the job seekers: deciding the types of jobs for which to apply, submitting job applications, and preparing for interviews. I propose that contacts who are spread across different occupations are conducive to applying to more types of jobs, yet it is contacts who are more focused across occupations that are beneficial for being invited to more interviews—relative to the number of job types applied for—and for converting the interviews into offers. In addition, contacts with lower relationship depth with the job seeker are more helpful for getting invited to interviews, whereas contacts who have more frequent interactions with the job seeker are more helpful for converting interviews into offers. Analyses using a unique longitudinal data set on the job searches of 226 participants in an MBA program offer robust evidence in support of the hypotheses. The results suggest that external mobility is best enabled when job seekers engage with—and learn from—different kinds of contacts across stages of the job search process

Time series properties of the renewable energy diffusion process: Implications for energy policy design and assessment

S. BASHER, A. MASINI, S. AFLAKI

Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews

December 2015, vol. 52, pp.1680-1692

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Unit root, Cross-sectional dependence, Renewable energy diffusions, Renewable energy policies

http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2498504


Confronted by increasingly tight budgets and a broad range of alternative options, policy makers need empirical methods to evaluate the effectiveness of policies aimed at supporting the diffusion of renewable energy sources (RES). Rigorous empirical studies of renewable energy policy effectiveness have typically relied on panel data models to identify the most effective mechanisms. A common characteristic of some of these studies, which has important econometric implications, is that they assume that the contribution of RES to total electricity generation will be stationary around a mean. This paper reviews such assumptions and rigorously tests the time series properties of the contribution of RES in the energy mix for the presence of a unit root. To that end, we use both individual and panel unit root tests to determine whether the series exhibit non-stationary behavior at the country level as well as for the panel as a whole. The analysis, applied to a panel of 19 OECD countries over the period 1990-2012, provides strong evidence that the time series of the renewable share of electricity output are not stationary in 17 of the 19 countries examined. This finding has important implications for energy policy assessment and energy policy making, which are discussed in the paper

Value Creation and Value Capture under Moral Hazard: Exploring the Micro-Foundations of Buyer-Supplier Relationships

T. OBLOJ, P. ZEMSKY

Strategic Management Journal

August 2015, vol. 36, n°8, pp.1146-1163

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Value-based strategy, Organizational incentives, Agency theory, Rivalry, Moral hazard

http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2159033


We combine the formalism of a principal–agent framework with a value-based analysis in order to investigate the micro-foundations of business partner selection and the division of value in contracting relationships. In particular, we study how the key contracting parameters such as efficiency, transactional integrity, incentive alignment, and gaming affect outcomes when buyers face competing suppliers. We show that integrity and efficiency increase value creation and capture for all parties and are complements. While incentive gaming is unambiguously bad for value creation, and reduces buyers' value capture, it can benefit some suppliers. For alignment, we find that neither party has an incentive to use fully aligned performance measures that maximize total value creation. We conclude by analyzing buyers' and suppliers' incentives to invest in integrity

A structural approach to handling endogeneity in strategic management: the case of RBV

A. NANDIALATH, J. DOTSON, R. DURAND

European Management Review

April 2014, vol. 11, n°1, pp.47-62

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Resource based view, Bayesian modeling, Endogeneity, Structural modeling, Competitive strategy


In this paper we posit that the lack of consensus about empirical tests of resource based view (RBV) could be the result of endogenous resource picking on the part of firms. If resources are endogenously selected, regression based methods that examine their connection to firm performance will be mis-estimated. We show that traditional remedies for endogeneity do not resolve this problem when returns to resources are heterogeneous (as theorized under RBV) and when managers act with at least partial knowledge of the expected, idiosyncratic return (as theorized under the strategic factor market hypotheses). As such, we develop a Bayesian approach that solves this endogeneity problem by directly incorporating resource picking into the modeling framework. We illustrate the validity of our approach through the use of a comprehensive simulation study and show that our proposed approach outperforms traditional linear models (including traditional cures of endogeneity and unobserved heterogeneity) under a variety of conditions. Our findings suggest that: (1) research in strategy requires a more careful and deeper understanding of potential sources of endogeneity and (2) the use of Bayesian methods in management can help develop more theoretically motivated empirical approaches to hypothesis testing

Attributional Tendencies in Cultural Explanations of M&A Performance

E. VAARA, P. JUNNI, R. SARALA, M. EHRNROOTH, A. KOVESHNIKOV

Strategic Management Journal

September 2014, vol. 35, n°9, pp.1302-1317


Challengers from within economic institutions: A second-class social movement? A response to Déjean, Giamporcaro, Gond, Leca and Penalva-Icher's comment on French SRI

Diane-Laure ARJALIES

Journal of Business Ethics

August 2014, vol. 123, n°2, pp.257-262

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Institutional change, Mainstreaming, Social movement, Socially responsible investment

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2291395


In a recent comment made about my paper 'A Social Movement Perspective on Finance: How Socially Responsible Investment Mattered' (J Bus Ethics 92:57-78, 2010), published in this journal, Déjean, Giamporcaro, Gond, Leca and Penalva-Icher (J Bus Ethics 112:205-212, 2013) strongly criticize the social movement perspective adopted on French SRI. They both contest the empirical analysis of the movement and the possibility for insiders to trigger institutional change towards sustainability. This answer aims to address the different concerns raised throughout their comment and illuminate the differences between both approaches. It first explains why SRI in France can be considered as a social movement, despite not being protest-oriented. It then reflects on the dangers of systematically associating societal change with radical activism. It concludes by elaborating on the importance of acknowledging the potential contribution of reformist movements from within the economic institutions to the enhancement of the social good

Firm-Specific Human Capital, Adverse Learning, and Agency Costs: Evidence from Retail Banking

Tomasz OBLOJ, D. FRANK

Strategic Management Journal

September 2014, vol. 35, n°9, pp.1279-1301

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Agency costs, Organizational incentives, Performance pay, Adverse learning, Firm-specific human capital


This paper explores conflicting implications of firm-specific human capital ( FSHC) for firm performance. Existing theory predicts a productivity effect that can be enhanced with strong incentives. We propose an offsetting agency effect: FSHC may facilitate more-sophisticated 'gaming' of incentives, to the detriment of firm performance. Using a unique dataset from a multiunit retail bank, we document both effects and estimate their net impact. Managers with superior FSHC are more productive in selling loans but are also more likely to manipulate loan terms to increase incentive payouts. We find that resulting profits are two percentage points lower for high- FSHC managers. Finally, profit losses increase more rapidly for high- FSHC managers, indicating adverse learning. Our results suggest that FSHC can create agency costs that outweigh its productive benefits

Governance mode vs. governance fit? Performance implications of Make-Or-Ally choices for product innovation in the worldwde aircraft industry, 1942-2000

X. CASTAÑER, L. MULOTTE, B. GARRETTE, Pierre DUSSAUGE

Strategic Management Journal

September 2014, vol. 35, n°9, pp.1386-1397

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: product innovation; horizontal collaboration; autonomous governance; discriminating alignment; endogeneity; aircraft industry


We examine the impact of governance mode and governance fit on performance in make-or-ally decisions. We argue that while horizontal collaboration and autonomous governance have direct and countervailing performance implications, the alignment of make-or-ally choices with the focal firm's resource endowment and the activity's resource requirements leads to better performance. Data on the aircraft industry show that relative to aircraft developed autonomously, collaborative aircraft exhibit greater sales but require longer time-to-market. However, governance fit increases unit sales and reduces time-to-market. We contribute to the alliance and economic organization literatures

How Do Strategic Factor Markets Respond to Rivalry in the Product Market?

O. CHATAIN

Strategic Management Journal

December 2014, vol. 35, n°13, pp.1952-1971

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Strategic factor markets, Resource development, Rivalry, Product market competition, Formal foundations of strategy


This paper explores the interplay between product market, strategic factor market, and resource development. More competition in the product market makes resource buyers bid higher for resources, as the value of trying to preempt the resources is higher. Holding other initial conditions constant, resources are developed more in industries with factor markets than in industries without. When buyers of resources cannot integrate more than one resource, developers choose to develop either at a low or high level, generating a type of heterogeneity that would not arise otherwise. Changes in the intensity of competition in the product market can have the opposite effect on resource development efforts depending on the presence or absence of factor markets

Intra-organizational information asymmetry in offshore ISD outsourcing

S. M. NUWANGI, D. SEDERA, S. C. SRIVASTAVA, G. MURPHY

VINE

2014, vol. 44, n°1, pp.94-120

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Offshore outsourcing, Agency theory, Information asymmetry, Information system development


Contemporary offshore Information System Development (ISD) outsourcing is becoming even more complex. Outsourcing partner has begun ‘re-outsourcing’ components of their projects to other outsourcing companies to minimize cost and gain efficiencies. This paper aims to explore intra-organizational Information Asymmetry of re-outsourced offshore ISD outsourcing projects.Design/methodology/approach - An online survey was conducted to get an overall view of Information Asymmetry between Principal and Agents (as per the Agency theory).Findings - Statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences between the Principal and Agent on clarity of requirements, common domain knowledge and communication effectiveness constructs, implying an unbalanced relationship between the parties. Moreover, our results showed that these three are significant measurement constructs of Information Asymmetry.Research limitations/implications - In our study we have only considered three main factors as common domain knowledge, clarity of requirements and communication effectiveness as three measurement constructs of Information Asymmetry. Therefore, researches are encouraged to test the proposed constructs further to increase its precision.Practical implications - Our analysis indicates significant differences in all three measurement constructs, implying the difficulties to ensure that the Agent is performing according to the requirements of the Principal. Using the Agency theory as theoretical view, this study sheds light on the best contract governing methods which minimize Information Asymmetry between the multiple partners within ISD outsourcing organizations.Originality/value - Currently, to the best of our knowledge, no study has undertaken research on Intra-organizational Information Asymmetry in re-outsourced offshore ISD outsourcing projects

Kitchen Confidential? Norms for the Use of Transferred Knowledge in Gourmet Cuisine

Giada DI STEFANO, A. KING, G. VERONA

Strategic Management Journal

November 2014, vol. 35, n°11, pp.1645-1670

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Social norms, Knowledge transfer, Institutional theory, Thick rationality, Intellectual property

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2306536


When will knowledge holders share their knowledge with peers? Several studies suggest that norms of knowledge disclosure encourage knowledge transfer. More recently, scholars have hypothesized that norms of knowledge use may indirectly promote it. In this article, we synthesize a theoretical framework of the effect of norms of knowledge use and test its predictions by means of a field experiment involving more than 500 Italian chefs. For the literature on knowledge transfer, we confirm the importance of norms, but we also show that they are not complete substitutes for other means of protecting private knowledge. For the literature on social norms, we provide evidence of how actors assess others’ propensity to conform and how this influences the intention to participate in the norm-regulated exchange

Knowledge transfer in multinational corporations: Productive and counterproductive effects of language-sensitive recruitment

V. PELTOKORPI, E. VAARA

Journal of International Business Studies

June-July 2014, vol. 45, n°5, pp.600-622


Lost in Translation: The Social Shaping of Marketing Messaging

R. V. KOZINETS, K. DE VALCK, A. WOJNICKI, S. J. S. WILNER

GfK Marketing Intelligence Review

November 2014, vol. 6, n°2, pp.22-27

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Blogs, Consumer-Marketer, Network Co-Production, Product seeding, Social brand engagement, Social media


Managing Retention in Service Relationships

I. POPESCU, Sam AFLAKI

Management Science

February 2014, vol. 60, n°2, pp.415-433

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Customer satisfaction, Lifetime value optimization, Retention, Service quality, Service relationships


In a repeat business context, past experiences with a service provider affect customers' decisions to renew their contract. How should a strategic firm manage customized service over time to maximize the long-term value from each customer relationship? We propose a dynamic model that relies on behavioral theories and empirical evidence to capture the effect of past service experiences on service quality expectations, customer satisfaction, and retention. Although firms can benefit from managing service expectations at the beginning of a relationship, we find that varying service in the long run is not optimal. Behavioral regularities explain the structure of optimal service policies and limit the value of responsive service. Loss aversion expands the range of optimal constant policies; however, if satisfying experiences are more salient, then firms should constantly vary service levels. Loyal or high-margin customers need not warrant better service; those who anchor less on past service experiences do—provided that retention is improved by better past experiences. The effect of customer memory on service levels is determined by whether habituation or rather goodwill drives defection decisions.Behavioral regularities explain the structure of optimal service policies and limit the value of responsive service. Loss aversion expands the range of optimal constant policies; however, if satisfying experiences are more salient then rms should constantly vary service levels. Loyal or high-margin customers need not warrant better service; those who anchor less on past service experiences do|provided that retention is improved by better past experiences. The eect of customer memory on service levels is determined by whether habituation or rather goodwill drives defection decisions

Moving Beyond Stylized Economic Network Models: The Hybrid World of the Indian Firm Ownership Network

D. MANI, J. MOODY

American Journal of Sociology

May 2014, vol. 119, n°6, pp.1629-1669

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Network, Organization, Structure

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2380079


A central theme of economic sociology has been to highlight the complexity and diversity of real-world markets, but many network models of economic social structure ignore this feature and rely instead on stylized one-dimensional characterizations. Here, we return to the basic insight of structural diversity in economic sociology. Using the Indian interorganizational ownership network as our case, we discover a composite – or “hybrid” – model of economic networks that combines elements of prior stylized models. The network contains a disconnected periphery conforming closely to a “transactional” model; a semi-periphery characterized by small, dense clusters with sporadic links, as predicted in “small world” models; and finally a nested core composed of clusters connected via multiple independent paths. We then show how a firm’s position within the meso-level structure is associated with demographic features such as age and industry, and differences in the extent to which firms engage in multiplex and high value exchanges

Moving forward: Developing theoretical contributions in management studies

J. CORNELISSEN, R. DURAND

Journal of Management Studies

September 2014, vol. 51, n°6, pp.995-1022

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Theory, Theoretical contribution, Analogy, Counterfactuals, Management research

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2477199


How do we, as management researchers, develop novel theoretical contributions and, thereby, potentially break new ground in management studies? To address this question, we review previous methodological work on theorizing and advance a typology of the reasoning processes that underlie theoretical contributions and significant advances in management studies. This typology consists of various types of analogical and counterfactual reasoning, ranging from focused thought experiments aimed at prodding existing theory in the direction of alternative assumptions, constructs, and hypotheses to more expansive efforts for inducing new theoretical models and alternative explanations. Applying this typology, we detail the mechanisms behind the formation of novel theoretical contributions and illustrate the currency of our typology through a review of 24 major theoretical breakthroughs in management studies. We conclude the paper by discussing the implications of this typology for our collective efforts in building, elaborating, and expanding theory in management studies

Network ties and absorptive capacity for learning and decision-making

N. KHACHLOUF, B. QUELIN, R. SOPARNOT

Journal of Decision Systems

January 2014, vol. 23, n°1, pp.4-23

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Inter-organizational network, Individual’s absorptive capacity, Personal network, PLS analysis

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12460125.2014.857211


The decision-making literature emphasizes that social ties play an important role in high-stake decisions. However, research on small- and medium-sized enterprises has only partially covered these influences by focusing on the direct link between social ties and the effectiveness of decision-making. In this paper, we focus on absorptive capacity of decision-makers as a critical mechanism that gives social ties their potency in explaining collaborative decision-making in an inter-organizational network (ION) context. In a sample of key individuals in 13 export consortia, this study identifies the extent to which the characteristics of personal network affect individuals’ absorptive capacity. Our results suggest that weak and heterogeneous ties between key individuals in an ION are central mechanisms that influence their ability to access, assimilate, transform and utilize information. However, indirect ties do not show a positive impact on absorptive capacity, as it was hypothesized. Our findings add to the literature on the role of network ties in collaborative decision-making by making explicit a mechanism through which personal network of individuals in an ION influence their information-processing capabilities for effective decision-making. We show that decision-making in interfirm networks is not only a political process but also a learning process

Outsourcing Failure and Reintegration: The Influence of Contractual and External Factors

S. CABRAL, Bertrand QUELIN, W. MAIA

Long Range Planning

December 2014, vol. 47, n°6, pp.365–378

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Reintegration, Outsourcing failure, Contracting, Isomorphism

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2294863


This paper discusses the reasons that drive organizations to interrupt outsourcing, reverse their previous decision, and then reintegrate activities formerly delegated to providers. Contractual approaches, mainly derived from Transaction Costs Economics, offer some plausible explanations for reintegration originating from outsourcing failure. These explanations are mainly related to asset specificity, poor contractual design, and deficient monitoring. The study of a real case of outsourcing interruption in industrial maintenance illustrates these different factors. However, some other determinants might complement the contractual and strategic background, namely bandwagon behavior and institutional pressure exerted by external actors. Finally, we propose an integrative framework that combines micro- and macro- levels of organizational analysis. We argue that some existing complementarities between the different theories we use here can shed some light on real organizational problems. Besides the implications for theory, our work can help managers to understand the dynamics of organizational boundaries, thus allowing them to make better choices in both outsourcing and reintegration decisions

Placing Strategy Discourse in Context: Sociomateriality, Sensemaking, and Power

E. VAARA, J. BALOGUN, C. JACOBS, P. JARZABKOWSKI, S. MANTERE

Journal of Management Studies

March 2014, vol. 51, n°2, pp.175-201


Struggles over legitimacy in the Eurozone crisis: Discursive legitimation strategies and their ideological underpinnings

E. VAARA

Discourse & Society

July 2014, vol. 25, n°4, pp.500-518


The Contraction of Meaning: The Combined Effect of Communication, Emotions, and Materiality on Sensemaking in the Stockwell Shooting

J. CORNELISSEN, S. MANTERE, E. VAARA

Journal of Management Studies

July 2014, vol. 51, n°5, pp.699-736


The fruitfulness of disagreement - Reading "Logics of Organization Theory" (Hannan, Polos, and Carroll, 2007) and "The Emergence of Organizations and Markets" (Padgett and Powell, 2012)

R. DURAND

Academy of Management Review

July 2014, vol. 39, n°3, pp.387-396

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


The Future of Outsourcing in the Asia-Pacific Region: Implications for Research and Practice—Panel Report from PACIS 2014

D. SEDERA, S. LOKUGE, H. KRCMAR, S. C. SRIVASTAVA, M. RAVISHANKAR

Communications of the AIS

December 2014, vol. 35, n°17, pp.317-331

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Outsourcing, Emerging Challenges in Offshoring, Outsourcing Large Packaged Applications, Rural IT Sourcing, Innovation in Outsourcing

http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/vol35/iss1/17


This paper summarizes a panel discussion held at the 18th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS) in Chengdu, China, 2014, with the same title. The panel discussed the future of outsourcing in the Asia-Pacific region (specifically the importance of outsourcing, new trends, and issues in outsourcing). This paper provides directions for future research that surpasses regional specificity (i.e., the Asia-Pacific region), and contributes to research interests on outsourcing in general

The New Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill

M. WINKLER

Quaderni di SIDIBlog

2014, vol. 1, n°16, pp.320-324

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)

http://www.sidi-isil.org/sidiblog/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Quaderni-Sidi-Blog_1_2014-1.pdf


The organizational drivetrain: A road to integration of dynamic capabilities research

G. DI STEFANO, M. PETERAF, G. VERONA

Academy of Management Perspectives

November 2014, vol. 28, n°4, pp.307-327

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Dynamic capabilities, Bibliometrics, Development path, Resource-based, Organizational drivetrain, Dynamic bundles

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2398327


Although the research domain of dynamic capabilities has become one of the most active in strategic management, critics have charged that it is plagued by confusion around the construct itself. In this paper, we uncover a potential reason for this confusion embedded in the unique nature of the construct's development path – a peculiarity that has led to split understandings of what constitutes a dynamic capability. We suggest a solution to this problem in the form of an illustrative metaphor – what we call the “organizational drivetrain”. Our drivetrain represents a theoretical model aimed at combining different views of the definition of dynamic capabilities by explaining how routines and simple rules interact. This shows that it is possible to advance the development of the framework by combining divergent understandings into a coherent whole. We conclude by offering specific recommendations for how to achieve a greater unity of understanding, and move the field even further forward

Vehicle Procurement Policy for Humanitarian Development Programs

M. EFTEKHAR, A. MASINI, A. Robotis, L. N. VAN WASSENHOVE

Production and Operations Management

June 2014, vol. 23, n°6, pp.951-964

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Fleet management, Humanitarian logistics, Development programs, Procurement


This article aims to identify optimal vehicle procurement policies for organizations engaged in humanitarian development programs and to derive general insights on the characteristics of these policies. Toward that end, we follow an inductive approach. First, we study the operations of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in three representative countries: Sudan, Afghanistan, and Ethiopia. Using a linear programming (LP) model primed with field data provided by the ICRC, we calculate the optimal vehicle fleet size and compare it with the policies actually implemented. Second, drawing from results of the LP model, we develop a stylized quadratic control model and use it to characterize the general structure of the optimal policy under different demand scenarios and operational constraints. After demonstrating that the results of the control model are consistent with those of the LP model in the specific context analyzed, we discuss the optimal policies and the applicability of the former as a practical tool for strategic asset planning

'We are being Pilloried for Something, We Did Not Even Know We Had Done Wrong!' Quality Control and Orders of Worth in the British Audit Profession

C. RAMIREZ

Journal of Management Studies

July 2013, vol. 50, n°5, pp.845-869

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Audit profession, Boltanski, Institutional work, Quality control, Thévenot, United Kingdom

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2280982


This paper contributes to the analysis of institutional work by looking at situations of perceived injustice that institutional change can create. To this end, the paper mobilizes the work of Boltanski and Thévenot on orders of worth to analyse the consequences for a professional body of a shift in institutional logics towards more accountability. The feeling of injustice experienced – and voiced – by some members of the largest British institute of auditors, the ICAEW, after it set up and operated a quality monitoring unit, serves to illustrate how change can turn awry when equity in a community of peers is threatened, and how institutional work can remedy such a situation by restoring a sense of worth in the community

Accounting and networks of corruption

D. Neu, J. Everett, A. Rahaman, D. E. MARTINEZ

Accounting Organizations and Society

August 2013, vol. 38, n°6-7, pp.505-524

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Corruption, Social networks, Social services, Sociology, Social interaction, Program administration (Education)


This study examines the nature and role of accounting practices in a network of corruption in an influence-market setting. The study focuses on the Canadian government’s Sponsorship Program (1994–2003), a national unification scheme that saw approximately $50 million diverted into the bank accounts of political parties, program administrators, and their families, friends and business colleagues. Relying on the institutional sociology of Bourdieu, the study demonstrates the precise role of accounting practices in the organization of a corrupt network imbued with a specific telos and certain accounting tasks. The study illustrates how accounting is accomplished and by whom, and it shows how the ‘skillful use’ of accounting practices and social interactions around these practices together enable corruption. In so doing, the study builds on a growing body of work examining criminogenic networks and the contextual, collaborative and systemic uses of accounting in such networks

Boarding the Aircraft: Trust Development Amongst Negotiators of a Complex Merger

M. LANDER, L. Kooning

Journal of Management Studies

January 2013, vol. 50, n°1, pp.1-30

Departments: Management & Human Resources, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: M&A, Negotiations, Process Study, Trust


We explore trust development in the context of an international merger negotiation. Based on in-depth interviews with chief negotiators of the Air France-KLM merger we contribute to existing theory by showing that trust develops in three interrelated domains: personal, process and outcome. Progressively, trust develops in all domains on the basis of antecedents that differ between phases and domains. Distinguishing between different domains facilitates analysis of trust asymmetry and the co-existence of trust and distrust, as well as the influence of trust in interorganizational relationships

Category stretching: Reorienting research on categories in strategy, entrepreneurship, and organization theory

R. DURAND, L. PAOLELLA

Journal of Management Studies

September 2013, vol. 50, n°6, pp.1100-1123

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Categories, Causal-model theory, Goal-based approach, Prototype

http://ssrn.com/abstract=1978917


We advocate for more tolerance in the manner we collectively address categories and categorization in our research. Drawing on the prototype view, organizational scholars have provided a 'disciplining' framework to explain how category membership shapes, impacts, and limits organizational success. By stretching the existing straightjacket of scholarship on categories, we point to other useful conceptualizations of categories ' i.e. the causal-model and the goal-based approaches of categorization ' and propose that depending on situational circumstances, and beyond a disciplining exercise, categories involve a cognitive test of congruence and a goal satisfying calculus. Unsettling the current consensus about categorical imperatives and market discipline, we suggest also that audiences may tolerate more often than previously thought organizations that blend, span, and stretch categories. We derive implications for research about multi-category membership and mediation in markets, and suggest ways in which work on the theme of categories in the strategy, entrepreneurship, and managerial cognition literatures can be enriched

Committed to Professionalism: Organizational responses of Mid-tier Accounting firms to conflicting institutional logics

M. LANDER, B. A. S. Koene, S. Linssen

Accounting Organizations and Society

February 2013, vol. 38, n°2, pp.130-148

Departments: Management & Human Resources, GREGHEC (CNRS)


We study how mid-tier accounting firms deal with changes in their institutional environment that resulted in a shift in emphasis from the trustee logic to the commercial logic. We find that these mid-tier firms selectively adopt practices related to the commercial logic, while retaining a principal commitment to the trustee logic. Interviews with high level informants in these firms show how specific strategic choice opportunities serve as independent critical events framing practice-adoption decisions. Main strategic issues for the mid-tier firms relate to the changing role of the accountant and changes in organizational structure and practices. As these issues fundamentally challenge characteristics of their professional identity, there is internal resistance against this transformation. Non-partnered accountants mainly challenge new roles that upset their extant work routines, whereas partners resist changes affecting their autonomy. These types of resistance directly impact the strategic organizational responses of the accounting firms to institutional pressures

Decentralization and contracting out: A new pattern for internal and external boundaries of the firm

G. Chanson, B. QUÉLIN

European Management Journal

December 2013, vol. 31, n°6, pp.602-612

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Boundaries of the firm, Centralization, Contracting out, Central services

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2294841


This paper is devoted to the pattern of activity within large companies, through the two criteria of decentralization and contracting out. Our goal is to understand whether the determinants are identical for both internal and external boundaries of the firm. One literature stream contributes to the analysis of the internal structure and organization of divisional companies, studying the functions assigned to headquarters or divisions. Another part of the literature has focused on the boundaries of the firm issues and the firm’s core activities. Few works are at the junction of these two traditions. This study builds on an empirical study dedicated to the book publishing industry. Our analysis leads to discuss determinants of internal and external borders. We show that functions or activities with high potential of economies of scale are mainly centralized and internalized. On reverse, those related to core business and non-programmable functions are mostly at divisional level and contracted out

Do Women Choose Different Jobs from Men? Mechanisms of Application Segregation in the Market for Managerial Workers

R. BARBULESCU, M. BIDWELL

Organization Science

May-June 2013, vol. 24, n°3, pp.737-756

Departments: Management & Human Resources, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Gender segregation, Hiring, Job applications, Supply side, Matching, Careers, Financial Services industry, Gender roles, Identification, Work–life balance


This paper examines differences in the jobs for which men and women apply in order to better understand gender segregation in managerial jobs. We develop and test an integrative theory of why women might apply to different jobs than men. We note that constraints based on gender role socialization may affect three determinants of job applications: how individuals evaluate the rewards provided by different jobs, whether they identify with those jobs, and whether they believe that their applications will be successful. We then develop hypotheses about the role of each of these decision factors in mediating gender differences in job applications. We test these hypotheses using the first direct comparison of how similarly qualified men and women apply to jobs, based on data on the job searches of MBA students. Our findings indicate that women are less likely than men to apply to finance and consulting jobs and are more likely to apply to general management positions. These differences are partly explained by women’s preference for jobs with better anticipated work–life balance, their lower identification with stereotypically masculine jobs, and their lower expectations of job offer success in such stereotypically masculine jobs. We find no evidence that women are less likely to receive job offers in any of the fields studied. These results point to some of the ways in which gender differences can become entrenched through the long-term expectations and assumptions that job candidates carry with them into the application process.

Exploring the Link between the Humanitarian Logistician and Training Needs

A. Allen, G. Kovács, A. MASINI, A. Vaillancourt, L. Van Wassenhove

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management

October 2013, vol. 3, n°2, pp.129-148

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Career path, Education, Humanitarian logistics, Logistics skills, Training


Purpose – The aim of this paper is to evaluate job profiles in humanitarian logistics, and assess current task priorities in light of further training and educational needs.Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents findings from a survey among humanitarian logistics practitioners and compares these to other studies in this area. It uses econometric models to evaluate the impact of managerial responsibilities in training needs, usage of time and previous training.Findings – The results show that the skills required in humanitarian logistics seem to follow the T-shaped skills model from Mangan and Christopher when looking at training wanted and time usage.Research limitations/implications – Survey respondents being members of the Humanitarian Logistics Association (HLA) may be more interested in developing the humanitarian logistics profession than other populations.Originality/value – This paper offers an insight in the specific skill requirements of humanitarian logisticians from members of the HLA and allows to understand which type of skills are linked to managerial responsibilities. The paper also establishes a link between logistics skill models and career progressions overall

Finding and Implementing Energy Efficiency Projects in Industrial Facilities

S. AFLAKI, P. Kleindorfer, V. Sáenz de Miera Polvorinos

Production and Operations Management

May-June 2013, vol. 22, n°3, pp.503-517

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Sustainable operations, Energy efficiency, Kaizen, Carbon footprinting


This study addresses the challenges of finding and implementing profitable energy efficiency (EE) projects, a critical foundation for sustainable operations. We focus on manufacturing enterprises, but many of our findings apply also to the back office of service operations. Our starting point is that, in nearly every industrial enterprise, there are many profitable EE projects that could be implemented but are not. An oft-cited hindrance to implementation is the lack of an internal management framework in which to find, value, and execute these projects. Using a conceptual approach, we rely on proven sustainable operations tools to develop such a framework. We identify three major value drivers of EE projects: savings intensity, 'green' image, and project complexity. We then describe a framework for understanding the context of EE projects in industry, with an underlying analytic foundation in optimal portfolio analysis. A case study of a large manufacturing site is used to illustrate emerging best practices'based on Kaizen management principles'for integrating EE project management with operations, engineering, and strategy

International Expansion, Diversification and Regulated Firm Nonmarket Strategy

S. Urbiztondo, J. Bonardi, B. QUÉLIN

Managerial and Decision Economics

September 2013, vol. 34, n°6, pp.379-396

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Expansion (Business), Diversification (Finance), Marketing strategy, Economic models, Competition (Economics), Economic development, Economics -- Research

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2294318


Previous studies have shown that regulated firms diversify for reasons that are different than for unregulated firms. We explore some of these differences by providing a theoretical model that starts by considering the firm–regulator relationship as an incomplete information issue, in which a regulated incumbent has knowledge that the regulator does not have, but the firm cannot convey hard information about this knowledge. The incumbent faces both market and nonmarket competition from a new entrant. In that context, we show that when the firm faces tough nonmarket competition domestically, going abroad can create a mechanism that makes information transmission to the regulator more credible. International expansion can thus be a way to solve domestic nonmarket issues in addition to being a catalyst for growth

Investment decisions in the renewable energy sector: An analysis of nonfinancial drivers

E. Menichetti, A. MASINI

Technological Forecasting and Social Change

March 2013, vol. 80, n°3, pp.510-524

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2247461


Notwithstanding their many environmental, economic and social advantages, renewable energy technologies (RE) account for a small fraction of the world's primary energy supply. One possible cause for this limited diffusion is that private investments in the RE sector, although potentially appealing, remain insufficient. The lack of adequate financing is also a clear indication that our understanding of the process by which investors fund RE ventures is still incomplete. This paper aims to fill in this gap and to shed new light on RE investment decisions. Building upon behavioral finance and institutional theory, we posit that, in addition to a rational evaluation of the economics of the investment opportunities, various non-financial factors affect the decision to invest in renewables. We analyze the investment decisions of a large sample of investors, with the objective to identify the main determinants of their choices. Our results shed new light on the role of institutional and behavioral factors in determining the share of renewable energy technologies in energy portfolios, and have important implications for both investors and policy makers: they suggest that RE technologies still suffer from a series of biased perceptions and preconceptions that favor status quo energy production models over innovative alternatives

La proposta di modifica del Regolamento sulle procedure d’insolvenza / The Proposal of Modification of the Regulation on Insolvency Proceedings

P. FAZZINI, M. M. WINKLER

Diritto del Commercio Internazionale

2013, vol. 27, pp.141-165

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Le rôle de la labellisation dans la construction d’un marché: Le cas de l’ISR en France [The role of labellisation in the design of a market: The case of SRI in France]

D.-L. ARJALIES, S. HOBEIKA, J.-P. PONSSARD, S. PORET

Revue Française de Gestion

October 2013, vol. 39, n°236, pp.93-107

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Industrial organization (Economic theory), Investments - Moral & ethical aspects, Labeling services, Finance, Insurance, Banking Industry, Assets (Accounting)

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2357939


The attractiveness of SRI (Socially Responsible Investment) for retail investors in France has remained limited in spite of the launch of labeling schemes and a substantial growth of SRI funds. The article analyzes why the labeling impact has been limited. Our framework is based on the interaction of three elements: labels and information asymmetry, the labeling organizations and the selection of information attributes, the induced competition between labels. Two main factors explain the limited impact of labels. First, the information attributes disclosed by the labels reflect the viewpoint of asset managers rather than the one of retail investors. Second, the distribution of SRI by banking and insurance networks is not a factor of competitive advantage. [

Social Commerce: A Contingency Framework for Assessing Marketing Potential

M. S. YADAV, K. DE VALCK-CARREL BILLIARD, T. HENNIG-THURAU, D. L. HOFFMAN, M. SPANN

Journal of Interactive Marketing

November 2013, vol. 27, n°4, pp.311-323

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Social commerce, Social media, Social networks, Online communities, Consumer decision process, Facebook, F-commerce, Digital marketing strategy


A key issue for marketers resulting from the dramatic rise of social media is how it can be leveraged to generate value for firms. Whereas the importance of social media for brand management and customer relationship management is widely recognized, it is unclear whether social media can also help companies market and sell products. Extant discussions of social commerce present a variety of perspectives, but the core issue remains unresolved. This paper aims to make two contributions. First, to address the lack of clarity in the literature regarding the meaning and domain of social commerce, the paper offers a definition stemming from important research streams in marketing. This definition allows for both a broad (covering all steps of the consumer decision process) and a narrow (focusing on the purchase act itself) construal of social commerce. Second, we build on this definition and develop a contingency framework for assessing the marketing potential that social commerce has to offer to firms. Implications for researchers and managers, based on the proposed definition and framework, are also discussed

Specialized capabilities in Integrated Solutions: The Role of Fit

F. Ceci, A. MASINI

International Journal of Business and Systems Research

2013, vol. 7, n°4, pp.395-411

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Contingency theory, Integrated solutions, IT sector, Information technology, Organisational capabilities, Business models, Degree of fit, Operational environment

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2549622


Contingency theory suggests that the selection of coherent combinations of organisational capabilities and operational environments has important performance implications. This paper builds upon this perspective to analyse the emergence of a new business model that is modifying the structure of many industries: the provision of integrated solutions. The aim of the paper is to examine the strategic decisions behind the adoption of a business model based on integrated solutions and to understand how internal firm capabilities must be modified to match the external environment. Relying on primary data from 102 European IT firms, we discuss the value of specialised capabilities, and we analyse their degree of fit with the operational environment in which they are applied. Results show that solution providers that possess specialised capabilities obtain greater benefits when they operate in homogeneous environments

The Effect of Environmental Uncertainty on the Tragedy of the Commons

Sam AFLAKI

Games and Economic Behavior

November 2013, vol. 82, pp.240-253

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: CPR games, Environmental uncertainty, Risk and ambiguity, The tragedy of the commons


We model a common pool resource game under environmental uncertainty, where individuals in a symmetric group face the dilemma of sharing a common resource. Each player chooses a consumption level and obtains a corresponding share of that resource, but if total consumption exceeds a sustainable level then the resource deteriorates and all players are worse-off. We consider the effect of uncertainty about the sustainable resource size on the outcome of this game. Assuming a general dynamic for resource deterioration, we study the effect of increased ambiguity (i.e., uncertain probabilities pertaining to the common resource's sustainable size). We show that whereas increased risk may lead to more selfish behavior (i.e., to more consumption), increased ambiguity may have the opposite effect

The Elephant in the Room of Dynamic Capabilities: Bringing two Diverging Conversations Together

G. DI STEFANO, G. Verona, M. Peteraf

Strategic Management Journal

December 2013, vol. 34, n°12, pp.1389-1410

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Dynamic capabilities, Cocitation analysis, Development path, Resource-based, Dynamic bundles

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2185504


A critical issue has been absent from the conversation on dynamic capabilities: the two seminal papers represent not only different but contradictory understandings of the construct's core elements. Here, we explore the reasons for this, using author cocitation analysis to inform our analysis. Our findings suggest that the field is being socially constructed on the basis of two separate domains of knowledge and that underlying structural impediments have impeded dialog across the domains. In light of this evidence, then, we take up the challenge to find a solution to this dilemma. By employing a contingency-based approach, we show that there are ways to unify the field that rely, paradoxically, on integrating the two contradictory views, while still preserving the assumptions that led to their differences

The Use of Management Control Systems to Formulate and Implement CSR Strategy: A Levers of Control Perspective

Diane-Laure ARJALIES, J. MUNDY

Management Accounting Research

December 2013, vol. 24, n°4, pp.284-300

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Directed by: special issue on "Challenges for management accounting arising from the sustainable development agenda"

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR strategy, Levers of control, Management control systems, Sustainability

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2256325


Little is known about the role of management control systems (MCS) in managing the strategic processes that underpin Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). To enhance our understanding of this phenomenon, this study employs Simons’ (1995) levers of control framework to explore how organizations leverage MCS in different ways in order to drive strategic renewal and trigger organizational change while simultaneously supporting society's broader sustainability agenda. Drawing on data gathered from France's largest listed companies – members of the CAC 40 – we provide insights into the structures and processes that companies employ to design, implement and monitor their CSR strategy. In doing so, we provide evidence of the way that organizations seek to attain their CSR objectives, and of the relationship between the management of CSR and other business processes. Of particular interest is the role of the levers of control in enabling managers to identify and manage threats and opportunities associated with CSR strategy, thus forming risk management processes that support organizations in their attainment of strategic objectives. Furthermore, the study provides evidence suggesting the use of MCS has the potential to contribute to society's broader sustainability agenda through processes that enable innovation, communication, reporting, and the identification of threats and opportunities

Using Blogs to Solicit Consumer Feedback: The Role of Directive Questioning Versus No Questioning

C. Balagué, K. DE VALCK

Journal of Interactive Marketing

February 2013, vol. 27, n°1, pp.62-73

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Blogs, Directive questioning, Market research, Online consumer feedback


Despite increasing adoption of social media for market research, the effect of the design of Web 2.0 platforms on the quantity and quality of market insights obtained is unclear. With a field experiment, this article addresses the effect of participant interaction and the role of questioning on the performance of blog platforms that aim to solicit online consumer feedback. We show that the role of questioning is a key determinant of the protocol design decision process. In contrast with the industry standard of directive questioning and the intuitive appeal of a collective protocol in a social media setting, this study shows that no questioning, combined with an individual protocol, results in the best feedback quality. The analyses also highlight the value of an individual, no questioning protocol for performance over time and insights in consumers' experiential consumption and personal backgrounds. In terms of feedback quantity, protocols that combine directive questioning with a collective setting are best. These actionable recommendations indicate how market researchers can design online blog plat forms to improve consumer feedback quantity and quality

Valuation Studies? Our Collective Two Cents (main authors: H. Kjellberg, A. Mallard)

Diane-Laure ARJALIES

Valuation Studies

April 2013, vol. 1, n°1, pp.11-30

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Value as noun and verb, Valuation processes, Topicality of valuation, Conceptual challenges, Sites of valuation, Research agenda

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2285491


This article presents the results of a poll made among the members of theeditorial and advisory boards of Valuation Studies. The purpose is to overviewthe topic that is the remit of the new journal. The poll focused on threequestions:1. Why is the study of valuation topical?2. What speci!c issues related to valuation are the most pressing ones toexplore?3. What sites and methods would be interesting for studying valuation?The answers to these questions provided by sixteen board members form thebasis of the article. Based on these answers, it identi!es a number of themesconcerning the study of valuation, elaborating on the rationale for attendingto valuation, the conceptual challenges linked to this, and the speci!c issuesand sites that deserve further attention

Value Creation in University - Firm Research Collaborations: A Matching Approach

Constanta Denisa MINDRUTA

Strategic Management Journal

June 2013, vol. 34, n°6, pp.644-665

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Matching, Complementarity, Endogeneity, Value creation, University–industry alliances

http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1351904


University-based technological opportunities are often exploited through joint corporate and academic entrepreneurship activities such as university–industry research collaborations. This paper explores the partner attributes that drive the matching of academic scientists and firms involved in these relationships. The paper models the formation of firm–faculty partnership as an endogenous selection process driven by synergy between partners' knowledge-creation capabilities. The main findings indicate that faculty–firm matching is multidimensional: firms and scientists complement each other in publishing capabilities but substitute each other in patenting skills. Furthermore, firms and scientists with specialized knowledge create more value by teaming with more knowledge-diversified partners. The paper contributes to the literature on university–industry knowledge transfer and, more generally, to the literature on alliance formation

Welche Faktoren erhöhen die Wirksamkeit der Internen Revision und stärken damit die Corporate Governance? Eine empirische Analyse „harter“ und „weicher“ Faktoren

F. HOOS, R. LENZ

Zeitschrift für Corporate Governance

2013, n°3, pp.107-114

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)

http://www.ZCGdigital.de/ZCG.03.2013.107


Die Interne Revision (IR) gilt als Kernkomponente des unternehmensinternen Überwachungs- und Kontrollsystems. Sie dient sowohl der Unternehmensleitung als auch dem Überwachungsorgan zur Erfüllung ihrer Aufgaben im Sinne einer effektiven Corporate Governance. Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht auf der Basis eines Fragebogens und anschließenden Interviews mit Leitern der Internen Revision und ihren Stakeholdern im Senior Management, welche Faktoren effektive von weniger effektiven Internen Revisionen unterscheiden. Die Verfasser fokussieren insbesondere in den Interviews auf „weiche“ Faktoren wie die Kommunikationsbeziehung zwischen dem Leiter der Internen Revision und den entsprechenden Stakeholdern im Senior Management, die für die Wirksamkeit der Internen Revisionen maßgeblich sind. Auf der Basis der empirischen Untersuchung werden Empfehlungen zur Steigerung der Effektivität der Internen Revision abgeleitet, um ihren Status als Kernkomponente der Corporate Governance zu gewährleisten

What is your Global Innovation Strategy?

S. C. SRIVASTAVA, S. MITHAS, B. JHA

IT Professional

November-December 2013, vol. 15, n°6, pp.26

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Business strategy, Developed world, Developing world, Digital strategy, Emerging economies, Global innovation, Information technology


The developing world doesnt approach innovation in the same way as the developed world. Therefore, as firms globalize, they must be mindful of some fundamental differences as they craft their innovation strategies. This article articulates key dimensions and innovation approaches that differ across developing and developed economies. It proposes a framework that managers can use to develop a comprehensive innovation strategy and to tailor their IT systems accordingly.

What Remains of the Alien Tort Statute After Kiobel?

M. M. WINKLER

North Carolina Journal of International Law & Commercial Regulation

Fall 2013, vol. 39, n°1, pp.171-190

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: *ACTIONS & defenses (Law) TORTS -- United States -- Cases KIOBEL v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co. (Supreme Court case) STATUTES -- United States -- States FEDERAL courts HUMAN rights -- Lawsuits & claims UNITED State


The article discusses the America's Alien Tort Statute (ATS) in the wake of the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in the 2013 case Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co. which deals with the ATS and the rules regarding torts-related lawsuits in U.S. federal courts. According to the article, the court in Kiobel determined that aliens cannot use the ATS to sue other parties when all of the relevant conduct in question took place outside of the U.S. Transnational human rights litigation is also examined

Advancing strategy and organization research in concert: Towards an integrated model?

R. DURAND

Strategic Organization

August 2012, vol. 10, n°3, pp.297-303

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: BOUNDED rationality *RATIONAL choice theory *STRATEGIC planning *ORGANIZATIONAL research *ORGANIZATIONAL sociology


The article discusses the impact of combining institutional and strategic research. The two type of research share common assumptions, which is the locally bounded rationality of agents. Despite the development seen in strategy research over the years, it still suffers from two shortcomings which include difficulties working with macro-dynamics. The author concludes that commonalities seen in both research types could find a resolution in other paradigm

An Empirical Investigation of Interorganizational Opportunism and Contracting Mechanisms

F. Lumineau, B. QUÉLIN

Strategic Organization

February 2012, vol. 10, n°1, pp.55-84

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Formal contract, Legal fees, Opportunism, Relational contract, Vertical relationship

http://ssrn.com/abstract=1977832


This study investigates contracting mechanisms in situations of opportunistic disputes between organizations. The authors specifically explore the relationships between the formal versus informal nature of opportunism and the formal versus informal nature of contractual governance. They use a unique data set of 102 buyer–supplier disputes to explore in depth different types of opportunism – that is, strong form versus weak form opportunism – and different types of contracting mechanisms – that is, the controlling and coordinating functions of formal contracts and the cooperative and competitive sides of relational contracts. The authors’ detailed empirical analysis suggests distinct relationships between the different contracting mechanisms, the different types of opportunism, and the level of legal fees necessary to deal with the dispute. From these findings the authors derive implications for research on the role of contractual mechanisms in dealing with interorganizational opportunism

Cognitive Absorption and Trust for Workplace Collaboration in Virtual Worlds: An Information Processing Decision Making Perspective

S. C. SRIVASTAVA, S. Chandra, Y-L. Theng

Journal of the Association for Information Systems (JAIS)

October 2012, vol. 13, n°10, pp.797-835

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Virtual worlds (VWs) are media-rich cognitively engaging technologies that geographically dispersed organizations can use as a cost effective workplace collaboration tool. Using an information processing decision making perspective and building on unique characteristics of VWs, this paper proposes a nomological net for adaptive use intention (AUI) of VWs for workplace collaborations. AUI implies intention to use a technology in a setting different from the one for which it was initially designed. We study the AUI of VWs as a workplace collaboration tool which were originally conceived as recreational gaming platforms. Decision-making literature directs us to reduction of perceived cognitive burden and minimization of risk as the two key motivations for VWs' AUI. Building on these motivations, the paper identifies cognitive absorption and user trust in VWs as the mechanisms leading to individual-level AUI decision. Drawing on social cognitive theory and literature on trust, the proposed model not only re-specifies the concept of cognitive absorption in the context of VWs but also relates it to the level of trust and usage intention for VWs. We empirically tested the proposed model via data collected from 197 VW users in Singapore. Results demonstrate the significant roles that cognitive absorption' and user trust play in VW's usage as a collaboration tool. Further, through a series of post-hoc analyses, we demonstrate the imperative need for considering both cognitive absorption and user trust together in the proposed research model for theoretical parsimony. We also discuss implications for research and practice emerging out of this study.

Contract Performance in Offshore Systems Development: Role of Control Mechanisms

S. C. SRIVASTAVA, T. S. H. Teo

Journal of Management Information Systems

Summer 2012, vol. 29, n°1, pp.115-158

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Contract performance, Control mechanisms, Control modes, Control theory, Interaction effects, Offshoring, Outsourcing, Project governance, Softwaredevelopment


Although control theory has often been invoked to explain the coordination between client and vendor for information systems development ISD, insights into its moderating effects for explicating ISD contract performance, especially in the offshore context, is rather limited. Such insights would enable better understanding of variables that have complementary or substitutive effects on performance. Further, the control literature talks about different control modes e.g., formal and informal control modes classified as behavior, outcome, clan, and self-control modes without adequately distinguishing among the different control mechanisms enacting each of the control modes. In this research, by explicitly classifying the distinctions that exist within each of the control modes, we uncover the key role played by mechanistic governance in outsourced ISD. Grounding our arguments in the information requirement for performance evaluation, the study theorizes the moderating influence of mechanistic governance on the relationships of contract specificity and relational governance with ISD quality and cost performance. We test the theorized model in a field study comprising 160 offshore ISD projects executed by Indian vendors. Our results establish the significant complementary role of mechanistic governance on the relationships of contract specificity with both cost and quality performance variables. Further, mechanistic governance substitutes the impact of relational governance on cost performance. Thus, the study theoretically as well as empirically establishes the need for conceptualizing mechanistic governance as a viable and significant governance mechanism for offshore ISD contracts. The study also teases out the distinctions between the two prime contract types in vogue for managing offshore ISD contracts, namely, fixed price and time and materials contracts. The study thus contributes not only to control theory but also to the stream of literature examining offshore ISD contracts. Further, the study provides insights to managers on having well-specified contracts and acknowledging the role of mechanistic governance for better performance.

Creating and Capturing Value in Public-Private Ties: A Private Actor's Perspective

I. KIVLENIECE, B. QUÉLIN

Academy of Management Review

April 2012, vol. 37, n°2, pp.272-299

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Public-private interorganizational relations, Governance, Public opportunism, Social activism, Value creation, Value distribution

http://ssrn.com/abstract=1932047


Intersecting the boundaries of public and private economic activity, public-private ties carry important organizational strategy, management, and policy implications. We identify the value creation and capture mechanisms embedded in these ties through a theoretical framework of two conceptual public-private structural alternatives, each associated with different value-creating capacities, rationales, and outcomes. Two important restraints on private value capture-public partner opportunism and external stakeholder activism-arise asymmetrically under each form, carrying a critical effect on partnership outcomes

How to connect strategy research with broader issues that matter?

E. Vaara, R. DURAND

Strategic Organization

August 2012, vol. 10, n°3, pp.248-255

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Incentive life-cycles: Learning and division of value within firms

T. OBLOJ, M. Sengul

Administrative Science Quarterly

June 2012, vol. 57, n°2, pp.305-347

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


accepté le 30 mai 2012In this paper, we study the individual and organizational learning mechanisms leading to the evolution of the division of value between economic actors under a given contractual arrangement. Focusing on the division of value between a firm and its employees, we theorize that following a change in the organizational incentive structure, employees learn, over time and with experience, how to be more productive under the implied objectives of the incentive regime, as well as how to game or exploit it. Results, based on outlet-level data from a Polish commercial bank over a 13-month period, show that the bank outlets' value creation (sales revenue from primary loans) and value appropriation (the sum of outlet employees' monthly bonus) both increased, at a decreasing rate, over time as outlet employees gained experience under the new incentive regime. In parallel, the bank's share (the percentage of value created by outlets retained by the bank) increased at first, then, after reaching a plateau, decreased continuously, indicating that the ability of the incentive regime to induce the intended results evolved, giving rise to an incentive life-cycle. In exploring the underlying micromechanisms, we found strong quantitative and qualitative evidence for the presence and relative paces of productive and adverse learning in bank outlets, as well as for the role of prior experience. This is the first empirical study to show that individual and organizational learning processes can influence the evolution of the division of value between economic actors.Author-Supplied Keywords: adverse learning division of value incentive life-cycles Incentives learning

Institutional Change in the Making - The Case of Socially Responsible Investment

D.-L. ARJALIES

Journal of Accounting and Organizational Change

2012, vol. 8, n°3

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Asset Management, Epistemic Object, Equity Investment, Fixed-Income Investment, France, Institutional Change, Mainstreaming, Practices, Social Movement, Socially Responsible Investment (SRI)

http://ssrn.com/abstract=1932295


This dissertation explores the mechanisms of institutional change in practice. The institutional change under study relates to the progressive penetration of Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) criteria into conventional investment funds, a phenomenon which appeared during the 2000s, known as SRI Mainstreaming. The dissertation aims to explain why SRI Mainstreaming has expanded into France and to identify its impacts on the practices of the French asset management sector. It mobilizes a three-year (2006-2009) longitudinal case study of a French asset management company, conducted as an SRI analyst. Research methods rely on the pragmatist concept of inquiry and combine participative observation, semi-structured interviews and documentary evidence. The dissertation comprises three articles that should be considered together. They explore 1) the origins of the SRI Mainstreaming phenomenon, 2) how asset management companies have transformed their practices in response to SRI Mainstreaming and 3) why practices have been transformed in a different way in fixed-income investment, compared to equity investment, respectively.

Is accountability a double-edged sword? Experimental evidence on the effectiveness of internal controls to prevent fraud

F. HOOS, G. Bollmann

Journal of Management Control

November 2012, vol. 23, n°2, pp.115-132

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Jules or Jim: Alternative conformity to minority logics

R. DURAND, J. JOURDAN

Academy of Management Journal

December 2012, vol. 55, n°6, pp.1295-1315

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Conformity, Resource dependence, Institutional logics, Minority logic, Soft control strategy

http://ssrn.com/abstract=1978906


To what extent do organizations respond favorably to minority participation, i.e. conform to demands from minority resource suppliers that hold an unconventional logic? A favorable response to minority participation (i.e. 'alternative conformity') contributes to decrease the influence of dominant players, alter the resource suppliers' social structure, and promote new logics, which makes alternative conformity a soft control strategy for organizations. We expect a positive relationship between minority participation and alternative conformity and that relationship to be attenuated by organizations' adherence to the dominant logic, centrality of minority logic holders, and minority logic's institutional credit. We test and find strong support for our hypotheses using original data on investment funds in the French film industry (1994-2008)

Knowledge, innovation and social norms in creative industries

G. DI STEFANO

Economia & Management

2012, n°3, pp.36-40

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Les outils de gestion : producteurs ou régulateurs de la violence psychique au travail ?

P. Gilbert, E. CHIAPELLO

Le Travail Humain

January 2012, vol. 75, n°1

Departments: Accounting & Management Control


Les pénalités de pauvreté en France : comment le marché aggrave la situation des populations pauvres

F. DALSACE, F. Dalens, J. Berger, C-E. Vincent

Facts Reports (Field ACTions Science Reports)

2012, n°4

Departments: Marketing

Keywords: Pauvreté dans les pays développés, Pénalités de pauvreté, double peine, Social Business


More than just novelty: conceptual blending and causality

D. Cornelissen, R. DURAND

Academy of Management Review

January 2012, vol. 37, n°1, pp.152-154

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


No territory, no profit: The pirate organization and capitalism in the making

J.-P. VERGNE, R. DURAND

M@n@gement

2012, vol. 15, n°3, pp.265-272

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: capitalism, industry evolution, legitimacy monopoly, norm, piracy


Organizational and management research focuses extensively on topics of legitimacy and competition. At center-stage lie for-profit organizations, which are often assumed to operate in economically turbulent environments embedded in stable sovereign institutions. Our goal in this short essay is to envisage a broader picture that takes seriously other types of organization that gravitate at the periphery of capitalism's territories and redefine the norms of competition and legitimate profit. Rehearsing the punch line of our recent book (Durand & Vergne, 2010, 2013), we advocate for a line of research that explores the boundaries of capitalistic expansion by examining the interactions between three types of actors: sovereign states and their monopolies, which map and impose norms upon the new territories of capitalism (a process we call "normalization"); legitimate for-profit corporations, which generate a profit in the wake of sovereign normalization (we call them "organizations-of-the-milieu"); and pirate organizations, operating from the fringes of capitalism to contest the sovereign's norms in the name of a "public cause". We are especially attentive to the convergent patterns of interactions we observed across time and space on the high seas (17th century), on the airwaves (early 20th century), in cyberspace (since the 1980s) and at the heart of living species in the form of DNA research (since the 1990s). This leads us to assert that sea pirates, pirate radio stations, cyberpirates and biopirates have a lot more in common than prior research on piracy typically assumed.capitalismindustry evolutionlegitimacymonopolynormpiracy

Qu'est-ce que l'investissement Socialement Responsable ?

D.-L. ARJALIES

La Revue du Financier

January 2012

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Développement, Durable, Fonds éthiques, Investissement Socialement Responsable (ISR), Responsabilité Sociale de l'Entreprise (RSE)

http://ssrn.com/abstract=1926928


Sell-off or shut-down? Alliance portfolio diversity and two types of high tech firms' exit

O. Bruyaka, R. DURAND

Strategic Organization

February 2012, vol. 10, n°1, pp.7-30

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: alliance portfolio diversity biotechnology exit high tech firms sell-off shut-down


Alliance portfolio diversity (APD) ' defined as differences between firms' types of alliance partners (i.e. horizontal, upstream, and downstream) ' is a strategic determinant of firm survival. This article analyzes APD in the context of high tech firms who rely on various partners to access complementary resources and secure their business survival, and argues that APD has different impacts on two main types of exit ' sell-off and shut-down ' which have been combined in previous research. Findings from a comprehensive study of French biotech firms from 1994 to 2002 show that the relationship between APD and shut-down is positive and linear whereas that between APD and sell-off is an inverted U-shaped. The article also finds evidence that the association between APD and firm exit mode is contingent on a firm's resources and capabilities. The implications for research and managerial practice are discussed.

Technology Push and Demand Pull Perspectives in Innovation Studies: Current Findings and Future Research Directions

G. DI STEFANO, A. Gambardella, G. Verona

Research Policy

October 2012, vol. 41, n°8, pp.1283-1295

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Technology push, Demand pull, Innovation, Bibliometrics, Co-citation analysis

http://ssrn.com/abstract=1155050


This study updates the debate on the sources of innovation. Using techniques like factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, and pathfinder analysis, we examine the most influential articles that have dealt with the topic. Our analysis provides three main findings. The first more precisely highlights the role of demand as a source of innovation. The second illustrates how competences enable firms to match technology with demand and capitalize on technology and demand as sources of innovation. The third unveils a distinction between external and internal sources of innovations. The sources of innovation can be purely external or internally generated competences that enable the firm to integrate external knowledge within its boundaries. Our work contributes to the classic debate by providing a more granular understanding of how technology and demand interact. In discussing our findings, we link our framework to strategy, innovation and entrepreneurship studies that expressly call for a better understanding of technology and demand factors in value creation and capture

The Development of New Products: The Role of Firm Context and Managerial Cognition

N. PLAMBECK

Journal of Business Venturing

November 2012, vol. 27, n°6, pp.607-621

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Managerial cognition, Corporate entrepreneurship, Firms' strategy and resourcest, Mediating relationship


We explore the effect of organizational factors and managerial cognition on firms' entrepreneurial actions and investigate the relationship between these antecedents by drawing from prior work on corporate entrepreneurship, managerial cognition, and the attention-based view of the firm. The analysis of data from 84 firms shows that firm strategy and resources influence the degree of negativity with which managers interpret events that lead to the development of new products. Our results also suggest that more negative evaluations of the triggering event lead to less innovative new products. While the strategy and the resources of a firm also have an effect on a new product's degree of innovativeness, at least part of this effect is mediated by executives' evaluation of the triggering event. The theoretical elaboration and our results contribute to a better understanding of the drivers of corporate entrepreneurial activities and point to the importance of considering both managerial and organizational factors for advancing our knowledge on firms' entrepreneurial actions

The impact of behavioural factors in the renewable energy investment decision making process: Conceptual framework and empirical findings

A. MASINI, E. Menichetti

Energy Policy

January 2012, vol. 40, n°1, pp.28-38

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Adaptive conjoint analysis, Behavioral finance, Investments, Renewable energy policy, Multivariate regression


Investments in renewable energy (RE) technologies are regarded with increasing interest as an effective means to stimulate growth and accelerate the recovery from the recent financial crisis. Yet, despite their appeal, and the numerous policies implemented to promote these technologies, the diffusion of RE projects remains somehow below expectations. This limited penetration is also due to a lack of appropriate financing and to a certain reluctance to invest in these technologies. In order to shed light on this phenomenon, in this paper we examine the decision making process underlying investments in RE technologies. We propose and test a conceptual model that examines the structural and behavioral factors affecting the investors decisions as well as the relationship between RE investments and portfolio performance. Applying econometric techniques on primary data collected from a sample of European investors, we study how the investors a-priori beliefs, their preferences over policy instruments and their attitude toward technological risk affect the likelihood of investing in RE projects. We also demonstrate that portfolio performance increases with an increase of the RE share in the portfolio. Implications for scholars, investors, technology managers and policy makers are derived and discussed

The Logics of Budgeting: Accounting, Theorization And Diffusion In The Educational Field

M. EZZAMEL, K. ROBSON, P. STAPLETON

Accounting Organizations and Society

July 2012, vol. 37, n°5, pp.281-303

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Welche Faktoren beeinflussen Unabhängigkeit und Objektivität der Internen Revision? Ergebnisse einer Umfrage. Zeitschrift Interne Revision

F. HOOS, A. d'Arcy

Zeitschrift Interne Revision

2012, pp.124-131

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)


A Framework for Stakeholder Oriented Mindfulness: Case of RFID Implementation at YCH Group

T. S. H. Teo, S. C. SRIVASTAVA, C. Ranganathan, J. W. K. Loo

European Journal of Information Systems

March 2011, vol. 20, n°2, pp.201-220

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: RFID, YCH Group, Mindfulness, Stakeholder, Implementation


Implementation of innovative technology in organizations is often fraught with challenges. Past literature on mindfulness suggests that mindful implementation of innovative solutions facilitates success and enhances effectiveness for the organization. Integrating insights from the mindfulness and stakeholder perspectives, we present and analyze a longitudinal case study of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) implementation at YCH Group, a leading logistics provider in the Asia-Pacific region. Our objectives are to examine key attributes of mindfulness as well as identify specific organizational routines that fostered mindfulness at YCH that ultimately paved the way for effective implementation of RFID technology. Important lessons can be learnt from how YCH instituted organizational routines that enabled them to mindfully implement RFID, by explicitly considering both internal and external stakeholders

Approches stratégiques des émissions CO2: figures libres ou figures imposées? Les cas de l'industrie cimentière et de l'industrie chimique [Strategic Approaches of CO2 Emissions: Short Program or Long Program ? The Cases of the Cement Industry and Chemica

D.-L. ARJALIES, C. Goubet, J. Ponssard

Revue Française de Gestion

June 2011, n°215, pp.123-146

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: CO2, Développement durable, Innovation, Stratégie


La capacité des entreprises à transformer une contrainte environnementale en source d'opportunité stratégique est un sujet controversé dans la littérature. S'appuyant sur une étude comparative des stratégies de lutte contre les émissions CO2 mises en place par les industries cimentière et chimique, l'article démontre que la latitude des entreprises à adopter une approche proactive en termes de développement durable est fortement contrainte par les caractéristiques du secteur en termes de dépendance vis-à-vis des ressources naturelles, de flexibilité dans la composition du portefeuille d'activités et de structure du secteur aval.

Balancing specialized and generic capabilities in the provision of integrated solutions

F. Ceci, A. MASINI

Industrial and Corporate Change

February 2011, vol. 20, n°1, pp.91-131

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Capabilities, Integrated Solutions, Cluster Analysis


Integrated bundles of products and services are gaining importance in various sectors and are reshaping the competitive landscape of many industries. They also pose new challenges to established firms, who need to reconfigure their capabilities. Drawing upon the resource-based view and contingency theory, we test a model of fit between environmental requirements and integrated solutions capabilities in the IT sector. We use the model to interpret the current industry structure and analyze its dynamics. The analysis suggests the existence of four different configurations and indicates that differences in fit between environmental variables and strategic choices partially account for performance differences among integrated solution providers. The results also suggest that, although the provision of bundled products and services confers some a priori advantages to IS providers over generic IT firms, these advantages are greater for firms that are able to align their capabilities to the characteristics of their operational environment

Better Vision for the Poor

B. GARRETTE, A. Karnani, J. Kassalow, M. Lee

Stanford Social Innovation Review

Spring 2011, pp.66-71

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Beyond disciplinary enclosures: Management control in the society of control

D. E. MARTINEZ

Critical Perspectives on Accounting

2011, vol. 22, n°2, pp.200-211

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)


pas sous affiliation HEC

Development and Impact of e-Government: The Intertwined Role of e-Commerce from a Cross-Country Stakeholder Perspective

T. S. H. Teo, S. C. SRIVASTAVA

Electronic government: an international journal

2011, vol. 8, n°2-3, pp.144-163

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Electronic commerce, e-commerce, e-business, Electronic business, Cross-country perspectives, Stakeholder perspectives, ICT readiness, Information technology, Communications technology, Primary stakeholders, National stakeholders, Citizen groups, Business organisations, ICT impact, Usage patterns, Interdependencies, Electronic government, e-government.


Anchoring our research in stakeholder theory and using secondary data from 100 countries, we examine the role of 'Information Technology (IT) readiness' of primary national stakeholder groups in a nation (i.e., citizens, businesses and governments), in facilitating both ''e-government and e-Commerce development'' in a nation. Furthermore, using the IT impact perspective, we examine the impact of e-government and e-Commerce development on the 'IT usage patterns' of the three identified national stakeholder groups. This study also examines the relationships between e-government and e-commerce in a nation so as to identify the important interdependencies between the two

EUA and sCER phase II price drivers: Unveiling the reasons for the existence of the EUAsCER spread

E. ALBEROLA, M. Mansanet-Bataller, M. Hervé-Mignucci, J. Chevallier

Energy Policy

March 2011, vol. 39, n°3, pp.1056-1069


Heterogeneous Motives and the Collective Creation of Value

F. Bridoux, R. Coeurderoy, R. DURAND

Academy of Management Review

October 2011, vol. 36, n°4, pp.711-730

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


The collective creation of value has remained underexplored in management research. Drawing on social psychology and behavioral economics, we analyze the impact of the mix of employee motives to cooperate and compare the collective value generated by three motivational systems: individual monetary incentives, benevolent cooperation, and disciplined cooperation. Aligning the motivational system with the mix of motives in the workforce allows firms to foster cooperation and realize the value creation potential of their resources

Is E-Government Providing The Promised Returns?: A Value Framework For Assessing E-Government Impact

S. C. SRIVASTAVA

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy

2011, vol. 5, n°2, pp.107-113

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Citizens, Government, Communication technologies, Information media


Purpose– The purpose of this viewpoint is to provide a framework for future research one-government impact.Design/methodology/approach– Using a concise review of major e-government studies, we present a value framework for assessing the impact of e-government. Specifically, we integrate the twostakeholder perspectives on e-government namely the “government” and the “citizen” and identify areas where e-government can provide returns.Findings– The model delineates three government and five citizen areas where e-government may create an impact. The three government areas are policy making, program administration, and compliance. The five citizen areas are financial, political, social, ideological, and stewardship. The impact in these areas is created because of two major value-generating mechanisms: enhancements in efficiency and enhancements in effectiveness. Further, the impact is created at different levels of analyses: local, state, and central governments.Originality/value– This viewpoint provides a timely discussion on returns from e-government andprovides a value framework for assessing these returns. It also provides several suggestions for future research in this area. This viewpoint is a call for systematic future research on the impact of e-government

La riforma francese dell’arbitrato. Un commentario sistematico / The French Reform of Arbitration Law. A Systematic Commentary

M. DE SANTIS, M. M. WINKLER

Diritto del Commercio Internazionale

2011, vol. 25, pp.927-971

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)


On Intersecting Ground: the Changing Structure of U.S. Corporate Networks

D. Knoke, D. MANI

Social Network Analysis and Mining

2011, vol. 1, n°1, pp.43-58

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: R&D - research joint venture - social rate of return - welfare analysis - innovation - game theory


Water demand for different applications is increasing year by year, while on the contrary, its availability, due to various reasons, tends to decrease. Also, districts that are historically rich in such resource have to deal with this new situation and give great attention and care to water management. Good examples of an integrated approach to water management in the Veneto Region are the 'Modello strutturale degli Acquedotti del Veneto' and the 'Progetto integrato Fusina'. The first project aims at managing water resources of a district with 4,500,000 inhabitants for the next 30 years, while the second one intends to realise an integrated plant capable of purifying wastewaters produced by a great industrial and urban area of 600,000 inhabitants and to supply purified waters instead of clean fresh water for industrial needs

Personal networks and knowledge transfer in inter-organizational networks

N. Rejeb, L. Mezghani, B. QUÉLIN

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development

2011, vol. 18, n°2, pp.278-297

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Knowledge transfer, Best practice, Learning organizations, Information management


Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to test the transfer of good practices under the effect of various aspects of personal networks. Whereas, the majority of former work considers a direct effect of networks on knowledge transfer, the authors examined two intermediate mechanisms: the access to strategic resources and the individual's absorptive capacity.Design/methodology/approach– A quantitative study was used to collect data, via a face-to-face questionnaire with key individuals in small and medium entreprises members of consortia in Tunisia. Data were analysed with a structural equations approach, based on partial least squared-path modelling techniques.Findings– Results emphasize the impact of network size, strength of ties and absorptive capacity on the strategic resource access and the impact of indirect ties, strength and range of ties on the absorptive capacity. Moreover, while absorptive capacity positively impacts good practice transfer, no support was found to the effect of resource access.Research limitations/implications– The main limitation of this study concerns the measuring of good practice transfer, since in literature there are often imprecise proxies. Also, while the authors have investigated the global impact of strategic resources, future research needs to treat them separately. Finally, a longitudinal study allows better capture of the evolution of the phenomenon studied.Practical implications– Top management and directors at a consortium level need to pay careful attention to the social context within which knowledge transfer efforts occur. Resources exchanged and the absorptive capacity developed through social interactions must be designed to increase knowledge flows between firms.Originality/value– The paper links two bodies of research often studied separately in inter-organizational research: literature on social networks and that on inter-organizational learning. It is hoped that the paper contributes to a cross-fertilization of the two fields

Role of Resource Gap and Value Appropriation: Effect of Reputation Gap on Price Premium in Online Auctions

T. OBLOJ, L. Capron

Strategic Management Journal

April 2011, vol. 32, n°4, pp.447-456

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


pas sous affiliation HECIn this study, we draw on the resource?based view of the firm and on value?based models of strategy to examine when firms appropriate value from their superior resources. We argue for the need to take into account the role of the resource gap between competitors rather than the absolute resource stock of the focal firm when examining the resource?performance relationship. In particular, we investigate whether the ability of a reputable seller to command a price premium is influenced by the reputation gap (i.e., the reputation differences between the focal seller and its closest competitor standardized by the reputation stock of both sellers). We test our hypotheses on 72 matched pairs of online transactions screened from more than 2,000 auctions of new mobile phones on the Polish Internet auction site Allegro. We find that the ability of a reputable seller to command a price premium (1) increases with the size of the reputation gap between the focal seller and its matched competitor, and (2) becomes increasingly smaller for each additional unit of the seller reputation gap. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.keyword(s)resource?based view, value?based strategy, resource gap, reputation, value appropriation, intangible resources

The Impact of Norm-Conforming Behaviors on Firm Reputation

D. Philippe, R. DURAND

Strategic Management Journal

September 2011, vol. 32, n°9, pp.969-993

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: conformity; reputation; norm; corporate environmentalism; communication


Deviance from social norms has been extensively examined in recent strategy research, leaving the strategic implications of conformity largely unexplored. In this article, we argue that firms can elect to conform to a norm along two dimensions: compliance with the goal and level of commitment to the procedures. We then produce a typology of four norm-conforming behaviors, which allows us to isolate differentiated effects of conformity on firm reputation. We examine the corporate environmental disclosures of 90 U.S. firms and find that firms derive different reputational rewards depending on whether they conform to the goal or procedure dimension of the environmental transparency norm. In addition, the relationship between conformity and reputation is moderated by the firm's prior reputation and the stringency of the normative environment

The introduction of French theory into English language accounting research

R. Baker, E. CHIAPELLO

Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal

2011, vol. 24, n°2, pp.140-160

Departments: Accounting & Management Control


The path of most persistence: An evolutionary perspective on path dependence and dynamic capabilities

J.-P. VERGNE, R. DURAND

Organization Studies

March 2011, vol. 32, n°3, pp.365-382

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: competitive advantage, dynamic capability, intentionality path dependence selection


This paper extends the dynamic capability view and research on organizational path dependence by arguing that path dependence can be a property of capabilities when a contingently-triggered capability path is subject to self-reinforcement (i.e. a set of positive and negative mechanisms that increases the attractiveness of a path relative to others). The paper introduces an evolutionary perspective, which specifies the underlying selection mechanisms of the property of path dependence in internal and external firm environments. This theorization sheds new light on three paradoxes that currently blur the theoretical contribution of path dependence to research at the managerial, organizational, and industry levels: (1) the problematic coexistence of path irreversibility and managerial intentionality; (2) the ambivalent strategic value of lock-in with regard to competitive advantage; and (3) the relative homogeneity in observed dynamic capabilities, despite their (possible) path dependence that should lead to a wider variety of outcomes owing to the presence of contingency. We highlight the contributions of this perspective to strategic management research and evolutionary theories

Tracing performance in the pharmaceutical industry: ambivalence, opacity and the performativity of flawed measures

C. DAMBRIN, K. ROBSON

Accounting Organizations and Society

October 2011, vol. 36, n°7, pp.428-455

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Using Biomass to Achieve European Union Energy Targets—A Review of Biomass Status, Potential, and Supporting Policies

A. FLAMOS, P. GEORGALLIS, H. DOUKAS, J. PSARRAS

International Journal of Green Energy

2011, vol. 8, n°4, pp.411-428

Keywords: Bioenergy, Bioenergy policies, Biomass, Biomass policies, Data validation, Energy policies, Renewables, Scientific reference system, SRS


In an effort to monitor its ambitious energy targets toward a “green Europe,” the European Commission has set up a project to enhance the availability, completeness, and quality of data regarding Green Energy Technologies. The Scientific Reference System (SRS) established in the framework of this project intends to support better-informed decisions. In this paper, we discuss the information gathered regarding energy from biomass by using the SRS methodology. First, the SRS approach is summarized and following that we present the findings of the research conducted by analyzing the data regarding biomass, with focus on energy policy frameworks

Value creation and value capture with frictions

O. CHATAIN, P. ZEMSKY

Strategic Management Journal

November 2011, vol. 32, n°11, pp.1206-1231

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Value-based strategy, Biform games, Industry analysis, Rivalry, Sustainable competitive advantage

http://ssrn.com/abstract=1424950


We use a formal value-based model to study how frictions—incomplete linkages in the industry value chain that keep some parties from meeting and transacting—affect value creation and value capture. Frictions arise from search and switching costs and moderate the intensity of industry rivalry and the efficiency of the market. We find that firms with a competitive advantage prefer industries with less, but not zero, frictions. We show that rivalry interacts nontrivially with other competitive forces to affect industry attractiveness. Firm heterogeneity emerges naturally when we introduce resource development. Heterogeneity falls with frictions, but the sustainability of competitive advantage increases. Overall, we show that introducing frictions makes value-based models very effective at integrating analyses at the industry, firm, and resource levels.

Value creation, competition, and performance in buyer-supplier relationships

O. CHATAIN

Strategic Management Journal

January 2011, vol. 32, n°1, pp.76-102

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Value-based strategies, Added value, Client-specific scope economies, Buyer-supplier relationships, Professional service firms


The value-based approach to strategy argues that a firm's ability to capture value depends on the extent of its added value. In this paper, I empirically test the link between added value and value capture using a longitudinal dataset of United Kingdom law firm performance, capabilities, and client relationships. In this setting, competitors relevant for defining a firm's added value are those that share a client with the firm. Further, within a client relationship, value creation, and hence added value, can be decomposed in two parts: product-line capability and client-specific scope economies. I find that added value, measured at the level of each buyer-supplier relationship, is a driver of relationship stability and supplier profitability. This suggests that suppliers with similar capabilities might enjoy different economic returns depending on the composition of their set of relevant competitors. These findings shed light on the conditions under which firms can appropriate returns from their capabilities. They indicate that concepts from cooperative games can be fruitfully applied to empirical studies of firm performance and to the elaboration of insights from the resource-based view of the firm

A Social Movement Perspective on Finance: How Socially Responsible Investment Mattered

D.-L. ARJALIES

Journal of Business Ethics

April 2010, vol. 92, pp.57-78

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Framing, France, Institutional change, Organizational field, Social movements, Socially Responsible Investment (SRI)

http://ssrn.com/abstract=1926935


This study discusses how social movements can influence economic systems. Employing a political'cultural approach to markets, it purports that 'compromise movements' can help change existing institutions by proposing new ones. This study argues in favor of the role of social movements in reforming economic institutions. More precisely, Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) movements can help bring SRI concerns into financial institutions. A study of how the French SRI movement has been able to change entrenched institutional logics of the French asset management sector provides wide-ranging support for these arguments. Empirical findings are drawn from a longitudinal case study (1997'2009), based on participative observation, interviews and documentary evidence. Implications for research on social movements, institutional change and SRI are outlined. Lastly, the study provides practitioners with some theoretical keys to understand the pros and cons of 'SRI labels'.

Bioenergy options in the industrialized and developing world and opportunities for the Clean Development Mechanism

A. FLAMOS, P. GEORGALLIS, J. PSARRAS

International Journal of Green Energy

2010, vol. 7(6), pp.647-661

Keywords: Sustainable development, Bioenergy, Gasification, Biofuels, Clean deevelopment mechanism (CDM)


Bioenergy is considered an option of significant potential for both industrialized and developing countries and its exploitation can strive toward more sustainable energy systems. In this framework, the main scope of this paper is an analysis of three bioenergy options, namely biomass combustion, biomass gasification, and production of biofuels for the transport sector, in terms of their status, benefits, and possible barriers, as well as their future potential. Special attention is given to the perspectives for deployment in the developing world in the context of emerging opportunities provided by the clean development mechanism for sustainable technology transfer

Building Social Business Models: Lessons from the Grameen Experience

M. Yunus, B. MOINGEON, L. LEHMANN-ORTEGA

Long Range Planning

April-June 2010, vol. 43, n°2-3, pp.308-325

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Grameen bank, founded in 1976, has both pioneered the development of micro-finance, and created nearly 30 businesses designed to alleviate poverty. The article traces the gradual development of Grameen's expertise in formulating social business models, which require new value propositions, value constellations and profit equations, and as such, resembles business model innovation. The article presents five lessons learned from this experience: three are similar to those of conventional business model innovation e challenging conventional thinking, finding complementary partners and undertaking continuous experimentation; two are specific to social business models: recruiting social-profit-oriented shareholders, and specifying social profit objectives clearly and early. We suggest these new business models e where stakeholders replace shareholders as the focus of value maximization e could empower capitalism to address overwhelming global concerns.

Challenges in Marketing Socially Useful Goods to the Poor

B. GARRETTE, A. Karnani

California Management Review

Summer 2010, vol. 52, n°4, pp.29-47

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


accepté le 12 avril 2010

Dominant Logic and Entrepreneurial Firms Performance in a Transition Economy

T. OBLOJ, M. Pratt

Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice

January 2010, vol. 34, n°1, pp.151-170.

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Dynamic Capabilities Deconstructed. A bibliographic investigation into the origins, development, and future directions of the research domain

G. DI STEFANO, M. Peteraf, G. Verona

Industrial and Corporate Change

April 23th 2010, vol. 19, n°4, pp.1187-1204

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Dynamic capabilities, Co-citation analysis, Resource-based, Invisible colleges

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2307230


This article uses co-citation analysis to explore the structure of the Dynamic Capabilities research domain, to better understand its origins, current state of development, and future directions. Co-citation analysis reveals the field's 'invisible colleges' and research directions. We find evidence of commonalities as well as polarizing differences among understandings across this research domain, suggesting opportunities and challenges for future research

E-Government, E-Business and National Economic Performance

S. C. SRIVASTAVA, T. S. H. Teo

Communications of the AIS

2010, vol. 26, n°1, pp.267-286

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Recent years have witnessed rapid developments in e-government as well as e-business within nations across the world. Although both e-government and e-business contribute toward national economic performance, few studies have analyzed the two jointly in a single research model. Using the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework and the literature on information and communication technology (ICT) impact; we empirically examine facilitators of e-government and e-business development, the relationship between e-government and e-business, and their collective impact on national economic performance. Our results, which emphasize the differential importance of factors associated with the development of e-government and e-business, can be used by national policy makers for designing effective ICT policies. Specifically, national ICT infrastructure appears to be important for both e-government and e-business. Quality of national human capital emerges as a significant facilitator for e-government but not for e-business, whereas national environment (institutional and macro-economic) appears to be the key enabler for e-business, but not for e-government. Our findings demonstrate the significant and intertwined roles of e-government and e-business in enhancing the national economic performance. With a view to enhancing national economic gains, this research suggests that policy makers should consider measures to enhance development of e-government and e-business collectively rather than in silos

Evaluating the Role of Trust in Consumer Adoption of Mobile Payment Systems: An Empirical Analysis

S. Chandra, S. C. SRIVASTAVA, Y.-L. Theng

Communications of the AIS

2010, vol. 27, pp.561-588

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Trust, Consumer, Adoption, Mobile payment systems


Consumer adoption of mobile payment (m-payment) solutions is low compared to the acceptance of traditional forms of payments. Motivated by this fact, we propose and test a "trust-theoretic model for consumer adoption of m-payment systems." The model, grounded in literature on "technology adoption" and "trust," not only theorizes the role of consumer trust in m-payment adoption, but also identifies the facilitators for consumer trust in m-payment systems. It proposes two broad dimensions of trust facilitators: "mobile service provider characteristics" and "mobile technology environment characteristics." The model is empirically validated via a sample of potential adopters in Singapore. In contrast to other contexts, results suggest the overarching importance of "consumer trust in m-payment systems" as compared to other technology adoption factors. Further, differential importance of the theorized trust facilitators of "perceived reputation" and "perceived opportunism" of the mobile service provider, and "perceived environmental risk" and "perceived structural assurance" of the mobile technology, are also highlighted. A series of post-hoc analyses establish the robustness of the theorized configuration of constructs. Subsequent, sub-group analyses highlight the differential significance of trust facilitators for different user sub-groups. Implications for research and practice emerging out of this study are also discussed

Genèse et Déploiement d'un Nouveau Business Model : l'Etude d'un Cas Désarmant / Creation and Implementation of a New Business Model: a disarming case study

B. MOINGEON, L. LEHMANN-ORTEGA

M@n@gement

2010, vol. 13, n°4, pp.266-297

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Case studies, Business models, Technological innovations, Learning, Business model, Double loop learning, Innovation, Strategic regeneration


The purpose of this article is to show through a case study the inherent diffi­culties in creating and implementing a new business model in an existing firm. This research is based on a study of Valtis, a French security transportation firm whose CEO helped to introduce onto the market an innovative system based not on securing goods but on removing temptation: money is no longer carried in armored vehicles but is placed in secure containers, transported by unarmed men traveling in unmarked cars. The article shows that as well as demonstrating technological innovation, this is in fact a radically new business model. It also highlights the double loop learning needed to create it and also the difficulties encountered when two business models (the old and the new) coexist during and after the strategic experimentation phase. More generally, the article aims to show how the notion of the business model opens up the question of strategic regeneration.

Identity as Narrative: Prevalence, Effectiveness, and Consequences of Narrative Identity Work in Macro Work Role Transitions

H. IBARRA, R. BARBULESCU

Academy of Management Review

January 2010, vol. 35, n°1, pp.135-154

Departments: Management & Human Resources, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Identity As Narrative: Prevalence, Effectiveness, and Consequences of Narrative Identity Work in Macro Work Role Transitions

R. BARBULESCU, H. IBARRA

Academy of Management Review

January 2010, vol. 35, n°1, pp.135-154

Departments: Management & Human Resources, GREGHEC (CNRS)

http://amr.aom.org/content/35/1/135.short


Self-narratives—stories that make a point about the narrator—help people revise and reconstruct identities during work role transitions. We propose a process model in which people draw on narrative repertoires to engage in narrative identity work in role-related interactions. Using feedback from their interactions, they revise both the stories and repertoires. Successful completion of the transition is facilitated by enduring and coherent repertoire changes to express the new role identity

Innovation and Selection: Symphony Orchestras and the Construction of the Musical Canon in the United States (1879-1959)

P.-A. KREMP

Social Forces

March 2010, vol. 88, n°3, pp.1051-1082

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


This article analyzes the determinants of innovation and success of innovation in the field of U.S. symphony orchestras from 1879 through 1959: why did major orchestras (N = 27) innovate by introducing works of new composers to the repertoire instead of sticking to canonical pieces? Can organizational processes account for the selection and the popularization of new composers in the repertoire? By integrating field theory and organizational theory, this analysis shows that orchestra and musical director consecration and local elite cohesiveness favored innovative programming. Composers introduced by consecrated actors and entering the repertoire at a time of low competition with established composers and high field-level innovation were more likely to survive in the repertoire and have their works performed frequently. These effects became magnified throughout composers' careers. SYMPHONY orchestras, CONCERTS, CANON (Art), COMPOSERS, MUSIC -- 20th century, UNITED States -- Intellectual life -- 20th century

L' innovation stratégique dans les entreprises existantes : des conséquences incertaines ?

B. MOINGEON, L. LEHMANN-ORTEGA

Revue Française de Gestion

2010, vol. 36, n°203, pp.57-70

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Language policies and communication in multinational companies: Alignment with strategic orientation and human resource management practices

S. TOUBOUL, R. DURAND

Journal of Business Communication

2010, vol. 47, n°2, pp.97-118

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Le social business, laboratoire d'apprentissage des stratégies de rupture

B. FAIVRE TAVIGNOT, L. LEHMANN-ORTEGA, B. MOINGEON

Revue Française de Gestion

November 2010, vol. 36, n°208-209, pp.175-189

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Building on the study of the joint venture between Danone and the Bangladeshi Grameen Group, a social business aimed at offering a nutritive and healthy product helping poor children fight against food deprivation, this article suggests that companies developing proactive strategies in the field of CSR incidentally strengthen competencies needed for replicating breakthrough strategies. Provided that they aim for the breakeven point in these new ventures, so as to ensure their sustainability, the constraints of social business create a real breakthrough learning lab, since they require entering a double loop learning process, they highlight the relevance of cooperation and develop market-orientation skills

Lever l'incertitude sur les conséquences de l'innovation stratégique

L. LEHMANN-ORTEGA, B. MOINGEON

Revue Française de Gestion

April 2010, vol. 4, n°203, pp.57-70

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


L'étude de quarante-sept cas d'innovat ions st ratégiques dans des ent repr ises existantes permet d'éclairer l'incer t itude résultant de ce type de st ratégie. Lorsque le nouveau modèleéconomique, int roduit par l'innovat ion st ratégique, concerne une niche ou permet de créer un nouveau marché, il peut coexister dans l'ent repr ise avec l'ancien. Mais lorsqu'il s'adresse avec succès au coeur de marché, sa performance conduit à la disparit ion du modèle antérieur.

Networked Narratives: Understanding Word-of-Mouth Marketing in Online Communities

R. Kozinets, K. DE VALCK, A. Wojnicki, S. Wilner

Journal of Marketing

March 2010, vol. 74, n°2, pp.71-89

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Advertising and promotions, Consumer communication, Online communities, Online consumer behavior, Internet marketing, Social media word of mouth

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2259683


Word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing'firms' intentional influencing of consumer-to-consumer communications'is an increasingly important technique. Reviewing and synthesizing extant WOM theory, this article shows how marketers employing social media marketing methods face a situation of networked coproduction of narratives. It then presents a study of a marketing campaign in which mobile phones were seeded with prominent bloggers. Eighty-three blogs were followed for six months. The findings indicate that this network of communications offers four social media communication strategies'evaluation, embracing, endorsement, and explanation. Each is influenced by character narrative, communications forum, communal norms, and the nature of the marketing promotion. This new narrative model shows that communal WOM does not simply increase or amplify marketing messages; rather, marketing messages and meanings are systematically altered in the process of embedding them. The theory has definite, pragmatic implications for how marketers should plan, target, and leverage WOM and how scholars should understand WOM in a networked worldadvertising and promotionsconsumer communicationInternet marketingonline communitiesonline consumer behaviorsocial mediaword of mouth

Où en sont les principales réformes sociales en Chine (Where are the Major Social Reforms in China)

P. MONGRUÉ, G. BAI, M. LE GAL

Bulletin Economique Chine

April 2010, n°24, pp.1-7


Real Options and Strategic Investment Decisions: Can They Be of Use to Scholars?

C. KRYCHOWSKI, B. QUÉLIN

Academy of Management Perspectives

May 2010, vol. 24, n°2, pp.65-78

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Real options (RO) analysis has been of growing interest to the academic community as a promising approach to supporting investment decisions under uncertainty. In this article we examine an applied investment decision in the telecommunications industry to highlight the main benefits associated with using real options. The paper then discusses the theoretical issues raised by real options. Specifically, we examine two research streams to explain how real options contributes to a theoretical understanding of strategic management, and to better understand the gap between theory and practice of real options. Finally, we lay out an agenda for future research

Structurer le débat « entreprises et pauvretés ». Légitimité, intérêt, modalité, efficacité

D. Ménascé, F. DALSACE

Revue Française de Gestion

November 2010, vol. 36, n°208-209, pp.15-44

Departments: Marketing


The missing link between the theory and empirics of path dependence: Conceptual clarification, testability issue and methodological implications

J.-P. VERGNE, R. DURAND

Journal of Management Studies

June 2010, vol. 47, n°4, pp.736-759

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Path dependence, Path dependency, Methodology, Inertia, Persistence, Chaos, Imprinting, First-mover advantage


Path dependence is a central construct in organizational research, used to describe a mechanism that connects the past and the future in an abstract way. However, across institutional, technology, and strategy literatures, it remains unclear why path dependence sometimes occurs and sometimes not, why it sometimes lead to inefficient outcomes and sometimes not, how it differs from mere increasing returns, and how scholars can empirically support their claims on path dependence. Hence, path dependence is not yet a theory since it does not causally relate identified variables in a systematized manner. Instead, the existing literature tends to conflate path dependence as a process (i.e. history unfolding in a self-reinforcing manner) and as an outcome (i.e. a persisting state of the world with specific properties, called 'lock-in'). This paper contributes theoretically and methodologically to tackling these issues by: (1) providing a formal definition of path dependence that disentangles process and outcome, and identifies the necessary conditions for path dependence; (2) distinguishing clearly between path dependence and other 'history matters' kinds of mechanisms; and (3) specifying the missing link between theoretical and empirical path dependence. In particular, we suggest moving away from historical case studies of supposedly path-dependent processes to focus on more controlled research designs such as simulations, experiments, and counterfactual investigation.

When the Glass is Half Full and Half Empty: CEO's Ambivalent Interpretations of Strategic Issues

K. Weber, N. PLAMBECK

Strategic Management Journal

July 2010, vol. 31, n°7, pp.689-710

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Ambivalence, Sensemaking, Strategic issue diagnosis, Organizational mindfulness, Managerial cognition, Organizational context


Organizational scholars have highlighted the importance of interpretive ambivalence for mindfulness, creativity, and strategic change. Ambivalence occurs when an issue is seen simultaneously as positive and negative. We examine organizational factors that influence the propensity of organizational leaders to evaluate a new strategic issue ambivalently. Data come from a survey of 220 German CEOs confronted with the enlargement of the European Union. We find that CEOs of firms with a more ambidextrous strategic orientation and a moderate sense of organizational control over their environment are most likely to be ambivalent about this issue. Our findings affirm the prevalence of interpretive ambivalence at the executive level and suggest ways for organizations to promote or prevent ambivalence in strategic sensemaking

"Court Save the Queen:" The European Court of Justice Quashes Another Deeply-Rooted Common Law Remedy in Transnational Parallel Litigation

M. M. WINKLER

Transnational Dispute Management

2009, n°1

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)

http://www.transnational-dispute-management.com/article.asp?key=1399


In the decision rendered on February 10, 2009 in Allianz S.p.A., Assicurazioni Generali S.p.A. v. West Tankers Inc. (Case C-185/07) ("West Tankers"), the European Court of Justice ("ECJ") quashed another procedural remedy which is typical of common law countries only and deeply rooted in such countries' history: the anti-suit injunction. Under such remedy, the court issues an order, directed to one of the parties to the proceedings pending before it, not to begin or continue another proceedings before a foreign court. The lack of performing the order results in heavy sanctions ...

An unprecedented privatisation of mandatory standard-setting: the case of European accounting policy

E. CHIAPELLO, K. MEDJAD

Critical Perspectives on Accounting

May 2009, vol. 20, n°4, pp.448-468

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, Tax & Law


Analysing, Accounting for and Unmasking Domination: On Our Role as Scholars of Practice, Practitioners of Social Science and Public Intellectuals

D. Golsorkhi, B. Leca, M. Lounsbury, C. RAMIREZ

Organization

October 2009, vol. 16, n°6, pp.779-797

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Bourdieu, Domination, Methodology, Organization studies, Participant objectivation, Reflexivity, Relational perspective, Social roles of scholars

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2266675


Over the last 30 years, there has been an increasing interest in organizational analysis for the work of Pierre Bourdieu. However, the consequent body of literature often lacks an integrated comprehension of Bourdieusian theory and therefore fails to fully exploit its potentialities. In this essay, we argue for a more systematic engagement with the work of Bourdieu by organizational scholars and emphasize the opportunity to develop cumulative research on domination within and between organizations. The means by which systems of domination are reproduced without conscious intention by agents is a central issue for Bourdieu and arguably the primary reason for the development of his theoretical framework. It is thus through the study of domination that one can acquire a panoramic vision of Bourdieusian concepts that have been otherwise too often tackled separately. Moreover, domination is also a key entry to the understanding of how social scientists produce their own knowledge and of their role as members of society. We emphasize that as scholars, we have a moral responsibility to be reflexive about our practice and the social worlds we study in order to ultimately use the knowledge we produce to inform and direct social progress

Back to the Origins of Positive Theories: A Contribution to an Analysis of Paradigm Changes in Accounting Research

T. JEANJEAN, C. RAMIREZ

Accounting in Europe

2009, vol. 6, n°1, pp.107-126

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Research, Business education, Account books, Financial statements, Accountants, Management controls


In this article, we analyse factors that explain the success of the empirical methodology of ‘positive accounting theory’ (PA) in accounting research. In fewer than ten years, between 1960 and 1967–1968, PA became dominant in the main accounting journals, and normative theories disappeared from academic publishing. The reasons for this success are not clearly established. The propagators of PA (Ball and Brown, 1968; Watts and Zimmerman, 1986) advocate the fertility of their approach, while others (e.g. Mattessich, 1995; Mouck, 1988; Whittington, 1987; Williams, 1989) denounce their ostracism and systematic denigration of rival approaches. Both proponents and opponents of PA consider the emergence of positive theories as a radical severance; however, we suggest that the move from normative to positive theories occurred gradually. Even if they took advantage of the reform that took place in US business schools during the 1950s, the proponents of PA also benefited from a decoupling between the academic world and accounting practice initiated by their predecessors

Causation, counterfactuals and competitive advantage

R. DURAND, E. Vaara

Strategic Management Journal

December 2009, vol. 30, n°12, pp.1245-1264

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: causation, counterfactuals, competitive advantage, epistemology


Causation needs more attention in strategy research. Confusion prevails around the statistical or causal nature of core relationships between resources, competitive advantage, and performance in the strategy corpus. Based on a discussion of alternative epistemological perspectives on causation, we define epistemological conditions that help to both dispel some of this confusion and to provide a basis for a counterfactual approach to causation. In particular, we argue that a counterfactual approach ' that builds on a systematic analysis of 'what-if' questions ' can advance our understanding of key causal mechanisms in strategy research. We offer two concrete methodologies ' counterfactual history and causal modeling ' as methodological solutions for causal strategy research. We show that counterfactual methods can open up new avenues for historical analysis, which has been very limited in our field, but maintain that such studies should take into account the inherent cognitive biases of retrospective constructions. We also illustrate that causal modeling provides opportunities for new conceptualizations and empirical testing of the relationships between resources and performance. In particular, resource properties can be regarded as mediating mechanisms in these causal relationships.

CEO Ambivalence and Responses to Strategic Issues

K. Weber, N. PLAMBECK

Organization Science

November-December 2009, vol. 20, n°6, pp.993-1010

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Ambivalent evaluations, Organizational action, Behavioral theory of the firm


We examine how executives' ambivalent evaluation of a strategic issue relates to organizational actions taken in response. Ambivalence occurs when a decision maker evaluates an issue as simultaneously positive and negative, a state that has received scant attention in organizational research. We integrate findings in social psychology with the behavioral theory of the firm to suggest how executives' ambivalence prompts wider and more vigorous search for action responses and enables broader participation. Data from a two-wave survey of 104 German CEOs who evaluated the enlargement of the European Union in 2004 and reported their organizations' responses show that organizations whose CEOs evaluated the event as both positive and negative were more likely to take action when both evaluations were also strongly held. The reported actions were also of greater scope, novelty, and riskiness. The study contributes to research on organizational decision making by theorizing the role of top executives' ambivalence and by providing a first systematic test of how ambivalence affects responses to strategic issues

Citizen Trust Development for E-Government Adoption and Usage: Insights from Young Adults in Singapore

S. C. SRIVASTAVA, T. S. H. Teo

Communications of the AIS

2009, vol. 25, n°31, pp.359-378

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/vol25/iss1/31


Trust, which has been found to be a significant facilitator for the adoption and usage of new business paradigms like e-commerce, is relatively unexplored in the context of e-government. Using trust literature as the theoretical lens, we propose an e-government trust grid for the adoption and usage of e-government, comprising two dimensions: 'trust in government' and 'trust in Internet technology.' Based on their levels of trust in the two identified dimensions, nations can fall into one of four quadrants: Adversarial, Competitive, Cooperative, and Collaborative. Using focus groups and interviews with young adults in Singapore, we find that in recent years, Singapore is evolving from the cooperative (low trust in Internet technology and high trust in government) to the collaborative (high trust in Internet technology and high trust in government) quadrant. The study delineates a set of lessons learned from the Singapore experience for engendering citizen trust in e-government. These lessons for governments are: solicit feedback from citizens, demonstrate top leadership commitment and support, build institutional trust, cultivate IT literacy, and enact comprehensive and effective legal systems.

Communication environnementale et réputation de l'organisation

D. Philippe, R. DURAND

Revue Française de Gestion

May 2009, n°194, pp.45-63

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Dans cet article, les auteurs avancent l'idée que les informations publiées par l'organisation sur son comportement environnemental constituent des signaux qui auront des impacts différenciés sur la réputation organisationnelle en fonction de leur nature, leur visibilité et leur cohérence. Les résultats indiquent que la conformité, la coprésence de signaux conformes et non conformes, et la visibilité du signal rejaillissent favorablement sur la réputation. Enfin, l'impact des signaux de conformité peu visibles dépend de la réputation antérieure de l'organisation, et ce à l'avantage des organisations bénéficiant d'une réputation plus élevée que la moyenne. Ces résultats permettent ainsi de contribuer à la fois à la littérature sur la communication environnementale et à celle sur le management de la réputation. *BUSINESS enterprises -- Environmental aspects*BUSINESS communication*COMMUNICATION in organizations*BUSINESS planning*INDUSTRIAL managementREPUTATION (Sociology)

Competing technology options and stakeholder interests for tracking freight railcars in Indian Railways

S. C. SRIVASTAVA, S. S. MATHUR, T. S. H. TEO

Journal of Information Technology

December 2009, vol. 24, n°4, pp.392-400

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: RFID, GPS, Technology choice, Options, Railroad, India


This teaching case examines the implementation of a new technology for tracking individual freight railcars (wagons) by Indian Railways. After exploring multiple ‘technological options,’ the Indian Railways decided to undertake a pilot project based on time-tested Automatic Equipment Identification system using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. However, a number of other technological options are now available, which include EPC Gen2-based RFID systems, Global Positioning System solutions, Optical Character Recognition (OCR)-based systems, and manual hand-held data collection devices integrated with the current Freight Operations System. Each of these systems has its own advantages and limitations. Although Indian Railways officials are going ahead with the pilot project, they are uncertain as to the appropriate technological choice, given the wide range of available technology options. Further, they are faced with competing interests from different stakeholder groups (departments), who favor different technologies.

Constructing the governable small practitioner: The changing nature of professional bodies and the management of professional accountants' identities in the UK

C. RAMIREZ

Accounting Organizations and Society

April-May 2009, vol. 34, n°3-4, pp.381-408

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Governable small practitioner, Professional bodies, Professional accountants


This article aims at contributing to the sociology of the accountancy profession by analysing how professional organisations govern the various categories that have emerged in the professional body throughout its history. To this end, the attempt by the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales to give an institutional existence to the category of “the small practitioner” is examined. The plasticity and the polysemic nature of the notion of smallness, which refers simultaneously to physical (small/big), geographical (local/global) and moral (anonymous/notorious) characteristics, offers a particular opportunity to show how these three dimensions have been integrated into evolving organisational arrangements and discourses aimed at legitimising the professional order. It is contended that the definition of what small practitioners are, and how they should be dealt with, can only be understood as part of the broader issue of governance of the accountancy community and the nature of the professional body. The ICAEW’s efforts to problematise the nature of small practices indicates a will to integrate distant modalities of accounting expertise into a single professional space, so as to prevent the physical and geographical distance between big and small firms from becoming too conspicuous a hierarchical distinction, and thus preserve the ideal of the community of peers upon which professional bodies have been built

Criticisms of capitalism, budgeting and the double enrolment: Budgetary control rhetoric and social reform in France in the 1930s and 1950s

E. CHIAPELLO, N. Berland

Accounting Organizations and Society

January 2009, vol. 34, n°1, pp.28-57

Departments: Accounting & Management Control


This article is a contribution to the study of the spread of management innovations, methods and rhetorics. It particularly concerns the influence of ideological and political factors, which have so far mostly escaped in-depth study. In particular, we seek to understand to what extent a critique of society developed by social reformers can be a source of inspiration for managers, leading them to change their practices and experiment with new devices. Relying on the framework of historical change in management practices developed by Boltanski and Chiapello [Boltanski, L., & Chiapello, E. (2005). The new spirit of capitalism. London: Verso (Translation of Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme, Paris: Gallimard, 1999)], we study the specific development of budgetary control in France, examined in the light of the general political and economic history of the 20th century. This framework simultaneously encompasses the dissemination of a new accounting practice, the transformation of capitalist institutions and mo des of regulation in a given period and country, and the programmatic discourses [Miller, P., & Rose, N. (1990). Governing economic life. Economy and Society, 19(1), 1'31] associated with the historical move.More exactly, what interests us is a double enrolment process. The business world promoters of budgetary control use the rhetorics of social reformers to present budgetary control as a solution to the economic and social problems of their time; conversely, social reformers promote budgetary control as a realistic, efficient tool that can change the world. Ultimately, a degree of alliance is possible around this management tool, although the extent to which the meanings each group attributes to its action are shared may remain unclear. Based on an analysis of the writings of budgetary control promoters of the 1930s and the 1950s, we show the close links between their discourse and the reforming ideas of their time, and how we can trace through this corpus the evolution of this kind of political rationalities [Miller, P., & Rose, N. (1990). Governing economic life. Economy and Society, 19(1), 1'31] associated with governing and managing corporations we call the spirit of capitalism [Boltanski, L., & Chiapello, E. (2005). The new spirit of capitalism. London: Verso (Translation of Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme, Paris: Gallimard, 1999)].

Entre originalidad institucional y recepción filosófica: Apuntes críticos sobre el nuevo modelo constitucional latinoamericano

D. RESTREPO AMARILES

Cuaderno sobre Relaciones Internacionales, Regionalismo y Desarrollo

2009, vol. 4, n°7, pp.39-67

Departments: Tax & Law


Entre originalidad institucional y recepción filosófica: Apuntes críticos sobre el nuevo modelo constitucional latinoamericano

ERP Competence-Building Mechanisms: An Exploratory Investigation of Configurations of ERP Adopters in the European and U.S. Manufacturing Sectors

A. MASINI, L. Van Wassenhove

Manufacturing & Service Operations Management

Spring 2009, vol. 11, n°2, pp.274-298

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

http://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/abs/10.1287/msom.1080.0215


This paper contributes to the literature on enterprise resource planning (ERP) by pursuing two objectives. First, it identifies configurations of ERP adopters that have similar needs and develop similar competencies. Second, it tests the hypothesis that, to maximize benefits from their ERP projects, organizations should align their ERP competence-building mechanisms with the ERP needs that arise from their operational environment. The analysis of a sample of manufacturing companies that implemented ERP between 1995 and 2001 uncovers four distinct configurations representing different degrees of fit between needs and competence-building mechanisms: the frugal ERP, the extensive business process reengineering (BPR), the adaptive ERP, and the straitjacket. The results support our hypothesis and suggest that the consequences of a misfit between needs and competence-building mechanisms are more severe for companies that operate in complex and dynamic environments and have informal organizational structures than for firms with rigid structures that operate in simple and stable environments. Key Words: enterprise resource planning (ERP); operations strategy; information and communication technology; empirical research; cluster analysis

Horizontal Alliances as an Alternative to Autonomous Production: Product Expansion Mode Choice in the Worldwide Aircraft Industry 1945-2000

B. GARRETTE, X. CASTAÑER, P. DUSSAUGE

Strategic Management Journal

August 2009, vol. 30, n°8, pp.885-894

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: alliance; collaboration; fit; governance; resource; competence; growth INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIC ALLIANCES; RESOURCE-BASED THEORY; COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE; TRANSACTION COST; JOINT VENTURES; AEROSPACE INDUSTRY; FIRM; CAPABILITIES; TECHNOLOGY; PERSPECTIVES


This study investigates why firms choose to undertake product expansion through alliances with competitors rather than on their own. We highlight product heterogeneity, as a determinant of this make or ally choice. We propose that firms turn to horizontal alliances in order to implement product expansion projects that require greater resources than those available to them. More precisely, we hypothesize that a firm. is more likely to launch a new product through a horizontal alliance rather than autonomously when the resource requirements of the project are greater, the resources available to the firm are more limited, there is a mismatch between resource endowment and requirement, and the firm's collaborative competence allows it to better cope with the interorganizational concerns that collaboration with competitors raises. We find support for our arguments on a sample of 310 new aircraft developments launched between 1945 and 2000, either by a single prime contractor or as a horizontal alliance in which prime contractorship is shared with another industry incumbent

Investimenti in ICT e performance aziendali: Un'analisi delle strategie di implementazione ottimali (ICT investments and firm performance: optimal implementation strategies)

A. MASINI, L. Van Wassenhove

Economia & Management

March 2009, vol. 2

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)


pas sous affiliation hecQuesto articolo offre un contributo alla letteratura sulla relazione tra investimenti in ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) e performance attraverso l'analisi di un campione di clienti SAP nel settore manifatturiero. La ricerca esamina l'efficacia delle principali strategie di implementazione dei sistemi ERP in relazione ai bisogni delle imprese. I risultati suggeriscono l'esistenza di quattro gruppi omogenei di imprese che hanno bisogni simili e sviluppano competenze simili durante l'implementazione del software. Essi suggeriscono inoltre che, per massimizzare i benefici del sistema adottato, le imprese debbano allineare le competenze generate con i bisogni derivanti dal loro ambiente operativo. Appare anche evidente che le conseguenze di un mancato allineamento tra bisogni e le scelte progettuali operate durante l'implementazione del sistema siano più severe per le imprese con strutture organizzative informali che operano in ambienti complessi e dinamici, che per le imprese con strutture rigide che operano in ambienti semplici e stabili.

Les responsables développement durable des grandes entreprises. Parcours, engagement er représentations

F. Gitiaux, E. CHIAPELLO

ROR - Revue de l'Organisation Responsable - Responsible Organization Review

May 2009, n°1, pp.43-53

Departments: Accounting & Management Control


Corporate Social Responsibility managers have a paaradoxical function in companies. They earn a living by showing the firm its negative social and environmental impacts, even when it seems difficult to address seriously the question without endangering the economic equilibrium. This article presents the results of a study which has aimed at knowing better who these people are, what kind of backgroudn they have, what have been their professional trajectory, how they consider their job, a.s.o. 11 interviews have been held followed by an on-line survey (34 answers).Keywords: managers, executives, sustainable development

New Rhetoric's Empir: Pragmatim, Dogmatism and Sphism

R. LAUFER

Philosophy and Rhetoric

2009, vol. 42, n°4, pp.326-348

Departments: Marketing


Où est passé le management public? Incertitude, institution et risque majeurs.

R. LAUFER

Politiques et Management Public

2009, vol. 3, pp.25-48

Departments: Marketing


Policy oriented review for photovoltaics introduction in the EU

P. GEORGALLIS, A. FLAMOS, H. DOUKAS, J. PSARRAS

International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology

2009, vol. 1(1), pp.64-80


Pour des sciences de gestion en prise avec la société

R. DURAND, S. Charreire-Petit, V. Warnier

Revue Française de Gestion

May 2009, n°194, pp.15-28

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Ce numéro spécial RFG-AIMS 2009 regroupe une sélection d'articles retenus suite à la XVIIIe conférence AIMS qui s'est déroulée à Nice en mai 2008. Cependant, nous avons choisi de nous écarter quelque peu de la tradition d'un numéro spécial RFG-AIMS, habituellement centré autour d'un thème fédérateur. Nous avons souhaité que ce numéro spécial 2009 reflète des oppositions, des discussions, des controverses de notre champ en présentant une mise en perspective des débats émergents de l'AIMS 2008, pointant chacun la nécessité d'une meilleure inscription des sciences de gestion dans la société. En outre, les articles de ce numéro spécial font appel à plusieurs autres disciplines et méthodes telles que l'analyse critique, l'analyse fictionnelle, l'anthropologie, ou la sociologie. Ils semblent se répondre entre eux autour d'une même philosophie générale : mieux inscrire les sciences de gestion dans la société implique de revenir sur le rôle de la recherche en gestion, sur la manière dont elle est produite et sur l'utilisation de ses productions par la pratique. Souhaitant introduire ces débats tout en y participant, nous avons pensé que le moment était venu qu'une tribune en faveur d'un meilleur ancrage des sciences de gestion dans la société soit publiée.

Rational vs. Institutional Perspectives in Organizational Websites

S. C. SRIVASTAVA, T. S. H. Teo, A. Subramanian

Communications of the AIS

June 2009, vol. 24, pp.615-638

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Isomorphism, Differentiation, Web sites, Institutional theory, Rational, Imitation, Bank, Business schools, IT firms, Inter-industry, Intra-industry

http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/vol24/iss1/36


Despite the business importance attached to the choice of features in organizational Web sites, most research on the subject is descriptive in nature. To our knowledge, no study has attempted to understand the underlying theoretical rationale explaining firms’ choice of Web site features. Adoption of innovative systems by organizations is not always a “rational decision” based on the market innovation perspective; it may be based on the organizations’ decision to conform to the “institutionalized norms” within or across the industries. In a similar vein, the underlying rationale for the firms’ choice of Web site features may be either predominantly “rational” or “institutional.” We use Web content analysis to examine the dominant theoretical perspective guiding the organizational Web sites: rational (differentiation) or institutional (alikeness). For this, we analyze the data recorded from 243 Web sites: 91 information technology firms (IT industry), 67 business schools (education industry) and 85 banks (banking industry). Data pertaining to 20 features of Web sites are classified into information and interactive contents within and across three industries. Results suggest that Web site features are primarily explained by intra-industry norms of alikeness rather than inter-industry similarities, thereby supporting the preponderance of “institutional perspective” for Web site features within each of the three industries examined. In contrast, differences in Web site features across the three industries can be explained using the “rational perspective.” Thus, both rational and institutional perspectives serve as useful theoretical lenses for understanding choice of organizational Web site features. The study also delineates a set of implications for research and practice.

Reform or renaissance? France's 1966 Companies Act and the problem of the ‘professionalisation’ of the auditing profession in France

C. RAMIREZ

Accounting History Review (ex Accounting Business and Financial History)

July 2009, vol. 19, n°2, pp.127-148

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Audit, Professionalisation, France


This paper revisits an episode in the history of the auditing profession in France: the period that saw the ‘professionalisation’ of auditing in the late 1960s, almost 100 years after enactment of the law that had officially created the activity. Despite the existence of practitioners with a reputation for competency and despite the more stringent conditions imposed on the recruitment of these practitioners during the 1930s, certification of accounts had remained a ‘function’ rather than a profession. The reform of France's commercial code in 1966 thus gave auditors a second chance, making them a key component in an ambitious plan to modernise French financial markets. The paper considers this reform from the angle of the problem facing the reformers, that of ‘professionalising the profession’ of auditor. Two aspects of the problems are discussed. The first concerns the need to take into consideration the existence of another profession, the profession of the French chartered accountant (expert-comptable), which in the opinion of its leaders had a legitimate claim to a monopoly on auditing. The second concerns the fate reserved for pre-reform audit practitioners (comissaires de sociétés), not all of whom would be admitted as members of the new auditing profession

Structure! Agency! (And other Quarrels): Meta-Analyzing Institutional Theories of Organization

P. P. M. A. R. Heugens, M. LANDER

Academy of Management Journal

February 2009, vol. 52, n°1, pp.61-85

Departments: Management & Human Resources, GREGHEC (CNRS)


The Cost of Transnational Accidents: Lessons from Bhopal and Amoco

A. NICITA, M. M. WINKLER

Journal of World Trade

2009, vol. 43, n°4, pp.683-705

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)


This article deals with the economic effects generated by different conflict rules on incentives of economic agents. In particular, we ascertain the rules currently in force at the domestic level, and subsequently analyze each of them from an economic standpoint. Namely, we focus our analysis on the following rules: the so-called lex loci delicti, the lex loci laesionis, the forum shopping and the forum non conveniens, the optio legis principle, and the rule of victim’s freedom of choice. We exploit these rules to explain some famous cases, that is, the accident that occurred at the Bhopal plant in 1984 and the oil spill involving the supertanker Amoco Cadiz.

The political economy of international regulatory convergence in public utilities

J.-P. BONARDI, S. Urbiztondo, B. QUÉLIN

International Journal of Management and Network Economics (IJMNE)

2009, vol. 1, n°2, pp.232 - 256

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Regulatory convergence, Telecommunications, Unbundling regulations, Political economy, Public utilities, Public utility regulation, Regulation impacts, Local impact.


To what extent should public utilities regulation be expected to converge across countries? When it occurs, will it generate good outcomes? Building on the core proposition of the New Institutional Economics that similar regulations generate different outcomes depending on their fit with the underlying domestic institutions, we develop a simple model and explore its implications by examining the diffusion of local loop unbundling (LLU) regulations. We argue that: one should expect some convergence in public utility regulation but with still a significant degree of local experimentation; this process will have very different impacts of regulation

Videography in Consumer Research; Visions for a Method on the Rise

K. DE VALCK, J. Hietanen, J. Rokka

Finanza Marketing e Produzione

2009, vol. 27, n°4, pp.81-101

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Virtual Communities: A Marketing Perspective

K. DE VALCK, G. van Bruggen, B. Wierenga

Decision Support Systems

June 2009, vol. 47, n°3, pp.185-203

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Consumer decision process, Interpersonal influence, Marketing, Netnography, Virtual communities of consumption, Virtual community members, Virtual community participation word-of-mouth


Increasingly, consumers interact through the Internet to share their knowledge, experiences, and opinions. Consequently, 'word-of-mouse' has become a significant market force that influences consumer decision-making. On the basis of extensive quantitative and qualitative research, the authors sketch how consumers make use of virtual communities as social and information networks, and how this affects their decision-making processes. We present three studies that address (i) determinants and effects of virtual community influence on the consumer decision process; (ii) virtual community participation patterns; and (iii) discussion practices of the most active community members. Key implications for managers, marketers, and market researchers are discussed.Keywords: Consumer decision process; Interpersonal influence; Marketing; Netnography; Virtual communities of consumption; Virtual community members; Virtual community participation; Word-of-mouth

Y a-t-il une bulle immobilière en Chine (Is There a Realestate Bubble in China)?

G. BAI, P. MONGRUÉ

Bulletin Economique Chine

October 2009, n°18, pp.1-4


Aux sources de la théorie positive : Contribution à une analyse institutionnelle des changements de paradigmes dans la recherche comptable [Back to the Sources of Positive Accounting theory: an institutitional analysis of paradigm changes in Accounting R

T. JEANJEAN, C. RAMIREZ

Comptabilité Contrôle Audit

December 2008, n°2/2008 (Tome 14), pp.5-26

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Théorie comptable, Histoire de la recherche comptable, Théories normatives, Théories positives


In this article, we analyze factors that explain the success of the « positive approaches » (PA) in accounting research. In less than ten years, between 1960 and 1967-1968, PA became dominant in the main accounting journals and the so-called « normative theories » disappeared from academic outlets. The reasons of this success are not clearly established. The propagators of PA (Ball and Brown 1968 ; Watts and Zimmerman 1986) advocate the fertility of their approach, while others (e.g. : Whittington 1987 ; Mouck 1988 ; Williams 1990 ; Mattessich 1995) denounce them as ostracizing and systematically denigrating rival approaches. Both proponents and opponents of PA consider the emergence of positive theories as a radical severance. However, we suggest that the move from normative to positive theories occurred in fact gradually. Even if they took advantage of the reform of the U.S. business schools during the 50's, the proponents of PA also benefited from a decoupling between the academic world and accounting practice initiated by their predecessors

Business Related Determinants of Offshoring Intensity

S. C. SRIVASTAVA, T. S. H. Teo, P. S. Mohapatra

Information Resources Management Journal

2008, vol. 21, n°1, pp.44-58

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Some researchers view information systems (IS) offshoring as extension of onshore IS outsourcing. However, others have the opinion that IS offshoring has its unique characteristics because of which, we cannot extend research made in onshore IS outsourcing without testing its applicability to the offshore context. This tension motivates our research to examine whether determinants of IS offshoring are indeed the same as determinants of onshore IS outsourcing? We examine the role of some firm level determinants of offshoring intensity. The four business related determinants that we analyze in this study are: business size, business cost, business financial leverage, and business performance. Results indicate a significant relationship between business size and offshoring intensity, and also between business financial leverage and offshoring intensity. Based on the results, we analyze similarities and differences between traditional onshore IS outsourcing and IS offshoring. Implications and contributions arising out of this study are also discussed

Competitors' Resource-Oriented Strategies: Acting on Competitors' Resources through Interventions in Factor Markets and Political Markets

L. CAPRON, O. CHATAIN

Academy of Management Review

January 2008, vol. 33, n°1, pp.97-121

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Competition, Business Intelligence, Competitive advantage, Marketing strategy, Resource-based theory of the firm, Resource management

http://ssrn.com/abstract=1020273


We argue that we can reach a better understanding of the relationships between firm resources and competitive advantage by considering actions that firms take against their rivals' resources in factor markets and political markets. We outline market and firm characteristics that facilitate the deployment of competitors' resource-oriented strategies. We then argue that the effectiveness of the firm's actions on its competitors' resources depends on the competitive responses of the rivals being attacked.

Discourse and audit change: transformations in methodology in the professional audit field

R. KHALIFA, R. SHARMA, N. HUMPHREY, K. ROBSON

Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal

2008, vol. 20, n°6, pp.825-854

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Do science and money go together ? The case of French Biotech industry

R. DURAND, O. Bruyaka, V. Mangematin

Strategic Management Journal

December 2008, vol. 29, n°12, pp.1281-1299

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: rent generation ' rent appropriation ' value drivers ' biotech industry Developing technological applications, entering exploitation alliances, and choosing between research- or service-focused strategic orientations are decisions that high-tech firms must manage concurrently.


This article explores systematically the contrasting effects of these strategic determinants on rent generation and rent appropriation using the entire population of French biotech firms (1994-2002). Findings indicate that science and money do not unconditionally go together-the direct relationship between rent-accruing resources (e.g., patents or articles) and rent appropriation varies depending on the type of resources and the strategic orientation. Moreover, the effects of strategic determinants differ for rent generation vs. rent appropriation: 1) technological application diversity undermines a firm's capacity to appropriate rents-in particular for research-oriented firms; 2) exploitation alliances favor rent generation but hinder rent appropriation; 3) service-oriented firms exhibit significantly better performance than research-oriented firms. Such evidence challenges the emergence in the biotechnology industry of a one-best strategic trajectory, as represented by research-intensive start-ups funded by private money engaged in publishing and patenting races

La construction comptable de l'économie

E. CHIAPELLO

Idées

June 2008, n°152, pp.26-34

Departments: Accounting & Management Control


Multi-stakeholder labour monitoring organizations: Egoists, instrumentalists, or moralists?

J. Everett, D. Neu, D. E. MARTINEZ

Journal of Business Ethics

2008, vol. 81, pp.117-142

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)


pas sous affiliation HEC

Opening the Black Box of Buzzing Bloggers; Understanding How Consumers Deal with the Tension between Authenticity and Commercialism in Seeded WOM Campaigns

R. Kozinets, K. DE VALCK, S. J. S. Wilner, A. Wojnicki

Advances in Consumer Research

2008, vol. 35

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Show Bizz Becomes Show Buzz: How Viral Diffusion Changes the Traditional Meaning-Making Process of a Rising Star

K. DE VALCK, D. Rasolofoarison, G. Kretz

European Advances in Consumer Research

2008, vol. 8

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Social issues in the study of management

D. Guthrie, R. DURAND

European Management Review

2008, vol. 5, pp.137-149

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


The Relationship between E-Government and National Competitiveness: The Moderating Influence of Environmental Factors

S. C. SRIVASTAVA, T. S. H. Teo

Communications of the AIS

2008, vol. 23, pp.73-94

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Using secondary data from 113 countries and the literature on Resource Based View [RBV] and Information Technology [IT] impact as the guiding theoretical lenses, we examine the relationships of e-government development and e-participation with national business competitiveness. E-government development represents the level of functional sophistication of e-government Web sites in a nation whereas e-participation is the level of country’s willingness to engage citizens in e-government processes. In addition, we analyze the moderating role of country environment on the relationships between e-government development and business competitiveness and also between e-participation and business competitiveness.Our results highlight strong association of e-government development as well as e-participation with national business competitiveness. Further, our results also show the moderating role of human capital, public institutions and macro-economic conditions on the relationship between e-government development and business competitiveness of a nation. Human capital and public institutions positively moderate this relationship whereas macro-economic environment marginally moderates the relationship in the negative direction. In contrast to this, the relationship between e-participation and business competitiveness is positively moderated only by national human capital. Further, we also analyze the combined relationship of e-government development and e-participation (e-government maturity) with national business competitiveness and observe that e-government maturity is also significantly related to national business competitiveness. Through this research, we make some important contributions that have implications for research and practice

Trust and e-Government Success: An Empirical Study

T. S. H. Teo, S. C. SRIVASTAVA, J. LI

Journal of Management Information Systems

Winter 2008, vol. 25, n°3, pp.99-131

Departments: Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: e-government, Intention to continue, IS success model, Public sector, Quality, trust


Electronic government is being increasingly recognized as a means for transforming public governance. Despite this increasing interest, information systems (IS) literature is mostly silent on what really contributes to the success of e-government Web sites. To fill this gap, this study examines the role of trust in e-government success using the updated DeLone and McLean IS success model as the theoretical framework. The model is tested via a survey of 214 Singapore e-government Web site users. The results show that trust in government, but not trust in technology, is positively related to trust in e-government Web sites. Further, trust in e-government Web sites is positively related to information quality, system quality, and service quality. The quality constructs have different effects on "intention to continue" using the Web site and "satisfaction" with the Web site. Post hoc analysis indicates that the nature of usage (active versus passive users) may help us better understand the interrelationships among success variables examined in this study. This result suggests that the DeLone and McLean model can be further extended by examining the nature of IS use. In addition, it is important to consider the role of trust as well as various Web site quality attributes in understanding e-government success

Brand Magic: Harry Potter marketing

D. DUBOIS, F. DALSACE, C. Damay

Harvard Business Review

February 2007, vol. 85, n°2

Departments: Marketing


Code and Conduct in French Cuisine: Impact of code changes on external evaluations

R. DURAND, H. Rao, P. Monin

Strategic Management Journal

May 2007, vol. 28, n°5

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


We study the effects of organizational code-preserving and code-violating changes on externalevaluations by third parties'an essential but under-studied strategic outcome. We define codepreservingchanges as a variation in the firm's product range that preserves the social codewithin which the firm positions its offering. By contrast, a code-violating change correspondsto a variation in the product range that breaks with past codes and embraces another socialcode. Our analyses of French haute cuisine restaurants show that code-preserving changes andcode-violating changes have positive effects on external evaluations. Both effects decline withprior evaluations received by the organization, but only the effect of code-violating changesis reduced with age. Moreover, external evaluations improve when restaurants undertake morecode-preserving changes than their direct competitors but decline when they make more codeviolatingchanges than competitors. These results enable us to derive implications for researchon strategic change, strategic groups, and strategic social positioning. Keywords code ' strategic changes ' external evaluations ' social positioning

Diminishing Returns from Reputation: Do Followers have a Competitive Advantage?

T. OBLOJ, K. Oblój

Corporate Reputation Review: an International Review

Winter 2007, vol. 9, n°4, pp.213-224

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Competitive advantage, Competitive dynamics, Reputation, Strategy


The paper addresses the value of reputation as a strategic, intangible resource. We hypothesize that a high reputation of an exchange partner will result in the ability to command a premium price during a transaction because it lowers the transaction costs of the other party. We also hypothesize that the smaller the differences in the level of reputation of competing parties, the more valuable a unit of reputation becomes. We test these hypotheses by empirical analysis of pairs of transactions on the Polish electronic exchange Allegro. Our analysis shows that if the differences in the levels of reputation decrease, the value of a unit of difference increases. We also extrapolate the results of our research into a more general model that shows the conditions in which a strategy based on high reputation (price premium per unit of reputation) is the most effective one and indicates the process of reputation development by stimulating the dynamics of leader and follower behavior.

Discourse and institutional change: ‘giving accounts’ and accountability

M. EZZAMEL, K. ROBSON, P. STAPLETON

Management Accounting Research

June 2007, vol. 18, n°2, pp.150-171

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Enjeux et opportunités de l'executive education

B. MOINGEON, L. LEHMANN-ORTEGA

Revue Française de Gestion

November-December 2007, n°178-179, pp.107-116

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Look Who's Talking! Technology-Supported Impression Formation in Virtual Communities

C. DAMBRIN, K. DE VALCK

Advances in Consumer Research

2007, vol. 34, pp.450-451

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)


The growing availability of consumer-generated information on the Internet about products, services, and companies has increased market transparency. Power is shifting from producers to consumers who share their knowledge, experiences, and opinions via virtual communities, electronic discussion forums, online opinion platforms, chat rooms, and weblogs. However, this abundance of readily available information also comes at a cost. How do you distinguish an expert from a fraud? Who is credible and trustworthy, and who isn't? We form impressions of others based on cues such as age, gender, manner of dress and speech (e.g., Hamilton & Huffman 1971). But how do we construct and evaluate impressions in an online environment that lacks social cues normally present in face-to-face settings?Cyberspace is in many ways distinctly different from the physical world. Two characteristics stand out. Firstly, interaction takes place through a technological interface, i.e., a computer, mobile phone, or an interactive television with Internet access. This means that the primary relationship is not between the sender and the receiver of information, but rather with the technology-mediated environment (Hoffman & Novak 1996). The second defining characteristic of cyberspace is its textuality. Communication and interaction online is based on the written word, audio, images, icons, and hyperlinks to other Web sites. This allows for new ways of self-presentation in which the physical self does not necessarily have to coincide with the digital self (Schau & Gilly 2003). Schau and Gilly (2003) have demonstrated that consumers make active use of signs, symbols, material objects, and places to construct a digital self on their personal Web site. In this paper, we want to extend their research into online self-presentational strategies by looking more closely at the receivers' side. The objective of our research is to investigate how consumers form impressions of senders in the context of word-of-web recommendations within virtual consumer communities (Kozinets 2002). Specifically, we focus on the role of the technological interface. According to Foucault (1977), technology can be considered as a disciplinary mechanism that is embedded in power devices. Examining how technologies are used to form and manage digital impressions, may help us to understand how individuals influence each other online. Gaining systematic insight in this process is necessary for improving and developing tools that aim to aid consumers in their assessment of online contributions (e.g., reputation systems, member profiles, contribution accounts)

Pourquoi les chercheurs français en management interviennent-ils si peu dans le débat public ?

R. LAUFER

Revue Française de Gestion

2007, pp.211-218

Departments: Marketing


Satisfaction with Virtual Communities of Interest: Effect on Members' Visit Frequency

K. DE VALCK, F. Langerak, P. Verhoef, P. W. J. Verlegh

British Journal of Management

September 2007, vol. 18, n°3, pp.241-256

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)


The authors develop a four-dimensional scale to measure members' satisfaction with virtual communities of interest (VCI's). The dimensions consist of members' satisfaction with member-to-member interactions, organiser-to-member interactions and organiser-to-community interactions, all of which come together on the VCI's site. Using a sample of 3605 members of a VCI, the authors investigate the effect of each satisfaction dimension on members' visit frequency, and the moderating effect of membership duration on the links between the satisfaction dimensions and visit frequency. The results reveal that satisfaction with member-to-member interactions, organiser-to-member interactions and the community's site has positive effects on members' visit frequency. Members' satisfaction with organiser-to-community interactions has no effect on visit frequency. The findings also show that membership duration strengthens two, and weakens one of the linkages between the satisfaction dimensions and members' visit frequency*INDUSTRIES -- Social aspects*INTERNET*MANAGEMENT -- Research*TELECOMMUNICATIONSocial aspectsSOCIAL interactionVIRTUAL communities

The horizontal scope of the firm: organizational tradeoffs vs. buyer-supplier relationships

O. CHATAIN, P. ZEMSKY

Management Science

April 2007, vol. 53, n°4, pp.550-565

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Added value, Biform games, Client-specific scope economies, Generalists versus specialists, Supply chain management


Horizontal scope—the set of products and services offered—is an important dimension of firm strategy and a potentially significant source of competitive advantage. On one hand, the ability to build close buyer-supplier relationships over multiple transactions can give an advantage to broad firms that offer buyers “one-stop shopping.” On the other hand, the existence of organizational tradeoffs can give an advantage to firms that specialize in a narrower range of products or services. We develop a biform game that incorporates this tension and show how the use of three generic scope strategies—specialist, generalist, and hybrid—depends on organizational tradeoffs, client-specific scope economies, barriers to entry, heterogeneity in buyer task requirements, and the bargaining power of suppliers relative to buyers. We then use the model to study a variety of issues in supply chain management, including the gains to coordinating suppliers, the optimal level of buyer power, and the desirability of subsidizing suppliers.One of our objectives is to show how biform games, which introduce unstructured negotiations into game theory analysis, can be used to develop applied theory relevant to strategy. Generalizing from our stylized model, we identify a class of biform games involving buyers and suppliers that is useful for strategy analysis. Games in this class have the attractive property of each supplier’s share of industry total surplus being the product of its added value and its relative bargaining power.

Transforming Audit Technologies: Business Risk Audit Methodologies and the Audit Field

K. ROBSON, C. HUMPHREY, C. KHALIFA, J. JONES

Accounting Organizations and Society

2007, vol. 32, n°4-5, pp.409-438

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Investments in Reputation Don't Always Pay Off

T. OBLOJ

Harvard Business Review Poland

2006, vol. 44, n°10, pp.20-24

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Investments in Reputation Don't Always Pay Off

T. OBLOJ

Harvard Business Review Poland

2006, vol. 44, n°10, pp.20-24

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Sameness, Otherness? Enriching organizational change theories with philosophical considerations on the same and the other

R. DURAND, R. Calori

Academy of Management Review

January 2006, vol. 31, n°1, pp.93-114

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Our objective is to discuss, in the organizational change literature, the recurring use of what we call the "sameness principle," along with another principle, inspired by contemporary philosophy and somehow present in the organizational ethics literature. called "otherness." We review four classic organizational change approaches, underscore the limitations of the sameness principle, and position otherness relative to current organizational ethics literature. We then emphasize the role of powerful agents within the organization as potential conveyors of otherness and deduce propositions that relate these agents' posture to the observable type of organizational change processesKeyWords Plus: STAKEHOLDER THEORY; BUSINESS ETHICS; INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE; PERSPECTIVE; ENTREPRENEURSHIP; STRATEGY; MODEL; LINK; CONVERSATIONS; INNOVATION

Strategic innovation: how to grow in mature markets

B. MOINGEON, L. LEHMANN-ORTEGA

European Business Forum

Spring 2006, n°24, pp.50-54

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Focuses on strategic innovation in companies. Need for companies to observe customer trends; Occurrence of a disruptive strategy in transforming value chain; Inclusion of Easy Jet and Ryanair in the low-cost airlines that have reshaped their value chain; Possibility of a company adopting a disruptive or breakthrough strategy to grow in flat or shrinking markets.*AIRLINES*BUSINESS enterprises*CONSUMER behavior*CORPORATIONS -- Growth*INNOVATION adoption

Virtuele connecties tussen consumenten: netwerken van consumptiekennis en kameraadschap

K. DE VALCK, B. Wierenga, G. Van Bruggen

Ontwikkelingen in het Marktonderzoek

2006, vol. 31, pp.27-43

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Should You Set Up Your Own Sales Force or Should You Outsource It ? Pitfalls in the Standard Analysis

W. Ross, F. DALSACE, E. Anderson

Business Horizons

January-February 2005, vol. 48, n°1, pp.23-36

Departments: Marketing

Keywords: Channel management, Sales force management, Outsourcing, Channel governance, Direct versus independent


Should you set up your own sales force or should you outsource it? The standard analysis is cost based and assumes that the direct sales force is a fixed cost and that the outsourced sales force's cost varies with sales. The standard analysis then calculates the sales volume at which the direct sales force's costs equal the outsourced sales force's costs and suggests that for sales volume above that quantity, firms should use a direct sales force. This analysis has two problems. First, several other cost factors are not considered in the standard analysis. Second, the standard analysis considers only cost, ignoring coverage efficiency and selling effectiveness differences between the two sales forces. Both problems will be detailed and developed in this paper

Word-of-Mouth in Virtual Communities: A Netnographic Analysis

K. DE VALCK

Advances in Consumer Research

2005, vol. 33, pp.573-575

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)


The Effect of Members'Satisfaction with a Virtual Community on Member Participation

P. W. J. Verlegh, K. DE VALCK, P. Verhoef, F. Langerak

Advances in Consumer Research

2004, vol. 31, pp.56-57

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Building Consensual Institutions: Networks and the National Estuary Program

M. Schneider, J. Scholz, M. Lubell, M. Edwardsen, D. MINDRUTA

American Journal of Political Science

2003, vol. 47, n°1, pp.143-158

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Currently, many approaches to solving policy problems seek to create comm unity-based, less coercive solutions that are creating the conditions for the birth of new regional governmental institutions. We argue that networks form the core of these emergent structures and that federal programs can play a positive role in developing local networks. Our empirical work compares networks in estuaries included in National Estuary Program with networks in comparable estuaries that were not. We find that the networks in NEP areas span more levels of government, integrate more experts into policy discussions, nurture stronger interpersonal ties between stakeholders, and create greater faith in the procedural fairness of local policy, thus laying the foundation for a new form of cooperative governance

Do Make or Buy Decisions matter ? The Influence of Organizational Governance on Technological Performance

M. Leiblein, J. Reuer, F. DALSACE

Strategic Management Journal

September 2002, vol. 23, n°9, pp.817-833

Departments: Marketing


This paper investigates hors, firms' decisions to outsource or internalize production affect their technological performance. While several popular arguments and some anecdotal evidence suggest a direct association between outsourcing and technological performance, the effects of firms' governance decisions are likely to be contingent upon several specific attributes underlying a given exchange. This paper first demonstrates how standard petformance models can improperly suggest a positive relationship between firms' outsourcing decisions and their technological performance. Models that account for firm- and transaction-specific features are then presented, which indicate that neither outsourcing nor internalization per se result in.superior performance; rather, a firm's technological performance is contingent upon the alignment between firms' governance decisions and tire degree of contractual hazards.

Redefining Supplier Development Programs

F. DALSACE, B. Rogowski

Revue Internationale de l'Achat

2002, vol. 22, n°1

Departments: Marketing

Keywords: Supplier, Development, Programs


Was Huntington Right? Testing Cultural Legacies and the Civilizational Border

A. Mungiu-Pippidi, D. MINDRUTA

International Politics

2002, vol. 39, n°2

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Bioscoopbeelden Kunnen Gerust Bezichtigd Worden; Rotterdamse Bioscopen in het Seizoen 1908/1909

K. DE VALCK

Tijdschrift voor Mediageschiedenis

1998, vol. 1, n°1, pp.32-46

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Books

Social Business & Base of the Pyramid

Social Business & Base of the Pyramid

B. FAIVRE TAVIGNOT

John Wiley & Sons

2016



Organizations, Strategy and Society: The Orgology of Disorganized Worlds

Organizations, Strategy and Society: The Orgology of Disorganized Worlds

R. DURAND

Routledge, New York

2015



Organizations are ubiquitous, from clubs and associations to firms and public agencies. They confer meaning to all of us, and our attachment to and membership of organizations have a profound effect on all areas of our lives. However, in our increasingly turbulent world, these organizations run the risk of disappearing or losing their legitimacy, creating a sense of pointlessness and absurdity.Organizations, Strategy and Society: The Orgology of Disorganized Worlds draws on neo-institutional and strategy theories of competitive advantage and develops an integrative approach to theorizing organizations and their behaviors, termed ‘orgology’. It explains that organizations can act strategically to protect and renew the meaning that individuals give to their lives. In so doing, organizations that survive and thrive impose their logics on society, thereby influencing what is legitimate or not. In turn, individuals must reinterpret their multiple associations with organizations and contribute to reinforcing or inhibiting social evolutions. This new way of understanding organizations’ relationships with society results in a reconsideration of management and the role of individuals in building their future.This book will be of interest to students at all levels, to researchers in organizational studies, strategic management and sociology, as well as to people willing to reorganize their world

Social business et base de la pyramide

Social business et base de la pyramide

B. FAIVRE TAVIGNOT

ISTE Editions

2015



Les projets social business ou BoP (Base of Pyramid) menés par les multinationales des pays développés dans les pays émergents ont un double objectif. Ils permettent aux populations pauvres d'acheter des biens et services auxquels elles ont peu accès et constituent également de nouveaux relais de croissance pour ces grandes entreprises. Au-delà de cet enjeu de développement, ces projets initiés avec les populations pauvres et les acteurs de la société civile sont de puissants leviers d'innovation, voire d'innovation inversée, et même de renouveau stratégique. Social business et base de la pyramide (SBoP) analyse en détail les cas d'initiatives SBoP des multinationales comme Danone, Schneider Electric, Renault, Essilor ou Bel. Il explore leur rôle novateur dans la stratégie de ces entreprises, leur permettant ainsi de se réinventer et d'être simultanément plus durables et compétitives face aux défis environnementaux et sociaux. **L'auteure** Co-fondatrice et directrice de la Chaire "Social business - Entreprise et pauvreté" et du Mastère HEC "Management du développement durable", Bénédicte Faivre-Tavignot est directrice du Centre Society & Organizations

The Pirate Organization: Lessons from the Fringes of Capitalism

The Pirate Organization: Lessons from the Fringes of Capitalism

translated in English from L'organisation pirate, Le Bord de l'Eau, 2010

R. DURAND, J. VERGNE

Harvard Business Press Books

2013



L'ouvrage développe une perspective originale sur l'organisation des communautés pirates opérant en mer, sur le Net, ou au coeur de l'ADN. Ces territoires sont aussi ceux de l'expansion du capitalisme, c'est pourquoi ce livre défend l'idée que l'organisation pirate, loin d'être un accident de l'histoire, se trouve être en réalité l'une des forces essentielles qui structurent le capitalisme depuis ses origines.Ce livre propose une théorie transhistorique de l'organisation pirate qui révèle la face cachée des sociétés capitalistes et permet d'expliquer une facette essentielle de leur évolution.Projet transdisciplinaire, cet ouvrage s'accompagne d'une composition musicale du groupe de rock Chevreuil, intitulée « L'Organisation Pirate ». L'oeuvre musicale est accessible librement et peut être téléchargée, modifiée, remixée, et diffusée à l'infini par les lecteurs du livre, qui en sont aussi les co-producteurs puisque le totalité des droits d'auteur finance la production et l'enregistrement du morceau.

China’s Development: Capitalism and Empire

M. AGLIETTA, G. BAI

Routledge, London

2012



Les nouvelles fondations des sciences de gestion - éléments d'épistémologie de la recherche en management (A. David, A. Hatchuel, R. Laufer Eds)

translated in French from Les nouvelles fondations des sciences de gestion - éléments d'épistémologie de la recherche en management (A. David, A. Hatchuel, R. Laufer Eds), Presses des Mines, Collection Économie et Gestion, 2001

A. DAVID, A. HATCHUEL, R. LAUFER

Presses des Mines, Collection Économie et Gestion

3e ed.th ed., 2012



L’abominevole diritto. Gay e lesbiche, giudici e legislatori Prefazione di Stefano Rodotà / Despicable Laws. Gays and Lesbians, Judges and Legislators

G. STRAZIO, M. M. WINKLER

Il Saggiatore

2011



Proibizioni, discriminazioni, persecuzioni. Spronato dall’interdetto biblico, in ogni tempo il diritto è stato strumento di soprusi ed esclusioni contro gay e lesbiche. Proprio per aver vestito quest’abito, ancora non del tutto abbandonato, si può qualificarlo come «abominevole». È inevitabile per il diritto, quando incontra la vita, diventare abominevole? No, non lo è. Anni di battaglie e di rivendicazioni hanno aperto la strada alla «rivoluzione della dignità», e in alcuni paesi l’attesa di uguaglianza delle persone omo sessuali di fronte alla legge è diventata effettiva. Il diritto ha sa puto gradualmente riscattarsi dall’abominio, riaccordarsi con la sua carica simbolica, riconquistare la sua funzione di legittimazione di princìpi e comportamenti civili. Non in Italia. Nel nostro paese, il Parlamento resiste impavido nel silenzio e nell’inerzia. Scomparsa ogni iniziativa sulle unioni di fatto, bloccate le norme contro l’omofobia, in Italia si sfrena l’aggressione – fisica e verbale – verso l’altro. Matteo M. Winkler e Gabriele Strazio, attraverso dilanianti casi giudiziari, fanno rivivere il tormentato cammino della giurisprudenza, indirizzato al riconoscimento di alcuni diritti fondamentali per le comunità Lgbt. Dall’abolizione delle leggi antisodomia alla conquista delle leggi antiomofobia, dal riconoscimento delle unioni civili ai matri moni gay, dalla procreazione assistita alle norme sulle adozioni da parte di coppie omosessuali, L’abomi - nevole diritto delinea, in una panoramica internazionale, il processo di adattamento delle leggi alle identità e agli orientamenti sessuali. Non distogliendo l’attenzione dalla realtà italiana, in cui questo processo, quasi godendo di un primato negativo, è maggiormente ostacolato e represso

L'organisation pirate

L'organisation pirate

R. DURAND, J.-P. VERGNE

Le Bord de l'Eau

2010



L'ouvrage développe une perspective originale sur l'organisation des communautés pirates opérant en mer, sur le Net, ou au coeur de l'ADN. Ces territoires sont aussi ceux de l'expansion du capitalisme, c'est pourquoi ce livre défend l'idée que l'organisation pirate, loin d'être un accident de l'histoire, se trouve être en réalité l'une des forces essentielles qui structurent le capitalisme depuis ses origines.Ce livre propose une théorie transhistorique de l'organisation pirate qui révèle la face cachée des sociétés capitalistes et permet d'expliquer une facette essentielle de leur évolution.Projet transdisciplinaire, cet ouvrage s'accompagne d'une composition musicale du groupe de rock Chevreuil, intitulée « L'Organisation Pirate ». L''uvre musicale est accessible librement et peut être téléchargée, modifiée, remixée, et diffusée à l'infini par les lecteurs du livre, qui en sont aussi les co-producteurs puisque le totalité des droits d'auteur finance la production et l'enregistrement du morceau.

Legality and Legitimacy: The Legal and Political Philosophy of Popular Sovereignty in the New Latin American Constitutions

D. RESTREPO AMARILES

Lambert Academic Publishing

2010



A vigorous constitutional movement has characterized the last two decades of Latin American politics. Claiming to recover popular sovereignty through the establishment of new constitutions the reformers, led by the Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez, aim at moving beyond the heritage of liberal modernity and establishing new states capable of abolishing historical oppressions while at the same time accomplishing emancipation. The author delves into the philosophical underpinnings of this idea, utilizing the concepts of legality and legitimacy as foundations upon which to build his claims. This thriving work proposes an interdisciplinary approach bringing together the history of philosophical ideas and a contextualized legal, political and sociological analysis of contemporary politics in Latin America. The author concludes that the underlying philosophy and institutional setting of the new Latin American constitutions, and particularly those issued of the Bolivarian Revolution, do not provide an alternative to the modern liberal state, but rather, they establish a new ideological framework which aims to recover lost faith in modern ideals.

Stratégie, structure, décision, identité : politique générale d'entreprise

translated in French from Stratégie, structure, décision, identité : politique générale d'entreprise, Dunod, Paris, 1997

les membres du département Stratégie et Politique d'Entreprise, sous le pseudonyme de "Strategor", B. QUÉLIN

Dunod, Paris

5e ed.th ed., 2009



Imprese multinazionali e ordinamento internazionale nell'era della globalizzazione / Multinational Enterprises and International Law in a Globalized Era

M. M. WINKLER

Giuffré

2008



Les nouvelles fondations des sciences de gestion - éléments d'épistémologie de la recherche en management (A. David, A. Hatchuel, R. Laufer Eds)

translated in French from Les nouvelles fondations des sciences de gestion - éléments d'épistémologie de la recherche en management (A. David, A. Hatchuel, R. Laufer Eds), Presses des Mines, Collection Économie et Gestion, 2001

A. DAVID, A. HATCHUEL, R. LAUFER

Presses des Mines, Collection Économie et Gestion

2e ed.th ed., 2008



Stratégie, structure, décision, identité : politique générale d'entreprise

translated in French from Stratégie, structure, décision, identité : politique générale d'entreprise, Dunod, Paris, 1997

les membres du département Stratégie et Politique d'Entreprise, sous le pseudonyme de "Strategor", B. QUÉLIN

Dunod, Paris

4e ed.th ed., 2005



Triggers of Entrepreneurial Actions: Linkages among Managerial interpretation, Slack Resources, and Product Innovation

N. PLAMBECK

WIKU Verlag, Berlin

2005



Perspectives en management stratégique (Ed.)

L. Mezghani, B. QUÉLIN

Editions Management & Société

2004



Risques & Management International, N° 3 : Autour du développement durable

Risques & Management International, N° 3 : Autour du développement durable

B. FAIVRE TAVIGNOT, F. BOURNOIS, P. CHAIGNEAU

Edition L'harmattan

2004



Le Libéralisme, l'Innovation et la Question des Limites

A. Hatchuel, R. LAUFER

L'Harmattan

2003



Les frontières de la firme

B. QUÉLIN

Economica

2002



Les nouvelles fondations des sciences de gestion - éléments d'épistémologie de la recherche en management (A. David, A. Hatchuel, R. Laufer Eds)

A. David, R. LAUFER, A. Hatchuel

Presses des Mines, Collection Économie et Gestion

2001



Entreprise et Evolution Economique

R. DURAND

Editions Belin

2000



La confiance en question

R. LAUFER, M. Orillard

L'Harmattan

2000



Le management stratégique des compétences

B. QUÉLIN, J. Arrègle

Ellipses

2000



Local Management of Schools:: the Creation and Implementation of Budgets

P. EDWARDS, M. EZZAMEL, K. ROBSON, C. MCLEAN

CIMA

2000



Making Up Accountants: the Professional and Organizational Socialization of Chartered Accountants

F. ANDERSON, C. GREY, K. ROBSON

Ashgate

1998



Stratégie, structure, décision, identité : politique générale d'entreprise

B. QUÉLIN, les membres du département Stratégie et Politique d'Entreprise, sous le pseudonyme de "Strategor"

Dunod, Paris

1997



Stratégie, structure, décision, identité : politique générale d'entreprise

from Stratégie, structure, décision, identité : politique générale d'entreprise, Dunod, Paris, 1997

B. QUÉLIN, les membres du département Stratégie et Politique d'Entreprise, sous le pseudonyme de "Strategor"

Dunod, Paris

1



Stratégie, structure, décision, identité : politique générale d'entreprise

translated in French from Stratégie, structure, décision, identité : politique générale d'entreprise, Dunod, Paris, 1997

les membres du département Stratégie et Politique d'Entreprise, sous le pseudonyme de "Strategor", B. QUÉLIN

Dunod, Paris

1



The Local Management of Schools Initiative

P. EDWARDS, M. TAYLOR, M. EZZAMEL, K. ROBSON

CIMA

1997



Facing the Challenge of Risk and Vulnerability in an Information Society (R. Laufer, L. Yngström, R. Sisey, J. Berleur, eds)

R. LAUFER

North-Holland

1993



L'entreprise face aux risques majeurs - à propos de l'incertitude des normes sociales

R. LAUFER

L'Harmattan

1993



Marketing Democracy

R. LAUFER

Transaction Books, USA

1989



El Principe Bureaucrata

R. LAUFER

Trillas Editeur, Mexico

1988



Can Information Technology Result in Benevolent Bureaucracies ? (R. Laufer, L. Yngström, R. Sisey, J. Berleur, eds)

R. LAUFER

North-Holland

1985



Le Prince Bureaucrate : Machiavel au Pays du Marketing

R. LAUFER, C. Paradeise

Flammarion

1982



Management Public : gestion et légitimité

R. LAUFER, A. Burlaud

Dalloz, Paris

1980



Mercator, théorie et pratique du marketing

J. LENDREVIE, R. LAUFER

Dalloz, Paris

1974



Case studies

African Solar Rise: Electrifying Rural Tanzania

S. AFLAKI, A. MASINI

2014

The case is about a German NGO that provides solar energy solutions in Tanzania and faces several challenges in order to scale its organization to generate much-needed revenue.
It examined the NGO, African Solar Rise (ASR), as it worked to improve its supply chain operations and last-mile distribution challenges while raising necessary capital to put it on more solid footing

Keywords: Accounting/Finance; Base of the Pyramid; Economics; Emerging and Developing Economies; Emerging Markets; Entrepreneurship & Innovation; Frontier Markets; International Business; Marketing/Sales; Operations Management/Supply Chain; Social Enterprise (Social Entrepreneurship); Social Impact; Strategy & Management; Sustainability

Combining Business and Societal Objectives at Danone

F. DALSACE, B. FAIVRE TAVIGNOT

2014

Danone is a leading European food multinational company who has been aggressively pursuing societal ("CSR") objectives for more than 40 years, and has developed an even more ambitious dual project since 2008. In 2011, in the aftermath of the worldwide crisis, the firm finds it increasingly difficult to meet its growth and profit objectives. Some voices in the Executive Committee are complaining that the societal agenda is putting undue pressure on the business.

The case briefly outlines Danone history and describes the organization and platforms enabling the firm to implement its new vision, which integrates business and societal objectives. The different platforms are illustrated by 12 examples of societal projects conducted throughout the world. In many instances the case hints at the way Danone uses CSR as a lever for transforming the company.

Danone needs to reexamine its societal approach to see whether it hinders or helps achieve business results. This begs the questions of 1) the legitimacy of Danone's management to develop these CSR initiatives 2) the method chosen by the firm to do so (how is Danone developing its dual approach?) and 3) the results accomplished so far.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), General Strategy, Inclusive Business Models, Social Business.

Jerónimo Calderón and euforia: Mobilizing youth for social impact

F. HOOS, E. HENRY

2014

Since its founding in 2007, euforia - a Swiss social initiative "by youth, for youth" - and hundreds of volunteers have administered dozens of events and activities that have offered concrete opportunities for over 3,500 youth to make a social impact. euforia and its co-founder Jerónimo Calderón have been recognized for catalyzing social change both within Switzerland and internationally, attracting support from a range of national and international partners. Originally focusing on certain core programmatic offerings, euforia also experimented with new initiatives and funding sources as it grew. As a result, in 2013, euforia was at a crossroads. It could continue down the path of revising its business model to scale its activities; pull back to preserve its original youth-centric social mission, organizational structure, and programs; or find a solution somewhere in between.

Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship, social impact, social value, impact investing, double bottom line, social mission, scaling, social business, business model, non, profit.

ANTALIS-MAP (A) : Fusionner et faire face aux turbulences

Bertrand QUELIN

2012

La société Antalis est un acteur important de la distribution B-to-B en Europe. En 2007, elle prend le contrôle de la société MAP pour devenir n° 1 de l'industrie. Ce mouvement stratégique majeur lui permet d'étendre sa couverture géographique, de rationnaliser ses entrepôts et de bénéficier d'économies d'échelle. Dans une industrie arrivée à maturité, et connaissant une décroissance régulière de la demande, cette acquisition illustre le bénéfice d'une stratégie focalisée sur la taille et la complémentarité des activités. Elle prépare la société Antalis mieux que ses concurrents directs aux turbulences que l'industrie connaît depuis.

Keywords: Analyse concurrentielle , Marché à maturité , Concentration , Fusion, acquisition , Synergies et économies de coût

ANTALIS-MAP (A): Merging to Manage Market Turbulence

Bertrand QUELIN

2012

Antalis is a company working as a major player in the B-to-B distribution in Europe. In 2007, Antalis took control over its competitor MAP to become #1 in the paper distribution industry. This key strategic move allows it to expand its geographical coverage, rationalize its warehouse and distribution network, and benefit from economies of scale. In a mature industry, and knowing a steady decline in demand, this acquisition demonstrates the benefit of a strategy focused on the size and complementarity of activities. It prepares the company Antalis better than its direct competitors in the industry knowing turbulence since.

Keywords: Competitive analysis , Mature market , Consolidation , Merger &, Acquisition , Synergies , Cost cutting

ANTALIS-MAP (B) : Fusionner et réorganiser : Un management postacquisition

Bertrand QUELIN

2012

La société Antalis est un acteur important de la distribution B-to-B en Europe. En 2007, elle prend le contrôle de la société MAP pour devenir n° 1 de l'industrie. Ce mouvement stratégique majeur lui permet d'étendre sa couverture géographique, de rationnaliser ses entrepôts et de bénéficier d'économies d'échelle. Dans une industrie arrivée à maturité, et connaissant une décroissance régulière de la demande, cette acquisition illustre le bénéfice d'une stratégie focalisée sur la taille et la complémentarité des activités. Elle prépare la société Antalis mieux que ses concurrents directs aux turbulences que l'industrie connaît depuis.

Keywords: Post acquisition , Mise en œuvre , Réorganisation , Identité et culture d'entreprise

ANTALIS-MAP (B): Merging and Post-acquisition Management

Bertrand QUELIN

2012

Antalis is a company working as a major player in the B-to-B distribution in Europe. In 2007, Antalis took control over its competitor MAP to become #1 in the paper distribution industry. This key strategic move allows it to expand its geographical coverage, rationalize its warehouse and distribution network, and benefit from economies of scale. In a mature industry, and knowing a steady decline in demand, this acquisition demonstrates the benefit of a strategy focused on the size and complementarity of activities. It prepares the company Antalis better than its direct competitors in the industry knowing turbulence since.

Keywords: Post acquisition , Implementation , Restructuring , Corporate Identity and Culture

ARES et La Petite Reine... de coeur ?

Laurence LEHMANN, J. KLESZCZOWSKI

2012

Réalisant un peu plus de 7 millions d'Euros de chiffre d'affaires en 2008, Ares est une entreprise d'insertion (EI), c'est à dire une entreprise de production de biens et/ou de services, se situant dans le secteur concurrentiel marchand, mais dont la finalité est d'employer des personnes sans emploi rencontrant des difficultés sociales et professionnelles particulières (ancien détenu, SDF, jeune sorti du système scolaire, ...). Les EI sont une passerelle, un sas vers l'emploi : pour les salariés en insertion, l'EI constitue un tremplin vers l'emploi classique, grâce à un accompagnement individualisé mené en parallèle de l'activité professionnelle. Or, Ares est une EI de grande taille, avec près de 360 personnes en insertion et 70 permanents, et plutôt performante, puisque le taux de sortie vers un emploi ferme se situe aux alentours de 58%, un chiffre bien plus élevé que la moyenne du secteur. Ares est actif dans le conditionnement et la logistique, la sous-traitance industrielle (par exemple dans le tri sélectif), le débarras et déménagement ainsi que le nettoyage écologique de véhicules et est bien géré par son dirigeant, Thibaut Guilly, qui a réussi à combiner efficacité sociale et économique.
Thibaut Guilly a la volonté de faire croître Ares, et de développer de nouvelles activités. En décembre 2008, son ambition est de racheter La Petite Reine (LPR), une entreprise écologique de transport urbain « du dernier kilomètre », réalisant ses livraisons sur un cargocycle, un vélo à trois roues assisté électriquement. Cependant, LPR est une jeune petite entreprise non rentable. De plus, c'est une entreprise « classique », que Thibaut ambitionne de transformer en entreprise d'insertion, une mutation qui ne s'est jamais vue dans le secteur habituellement très hermétique de l'insertion.
Les membres du conseil d'administration d'Ares doivent se prononcer rapidement sur l'opportunité de ce rachat. Les synergies présentées par Thibaut et son équipe, très volontaristes, sont-elles bien réalistes ? La mission sociale d'Ares, pour qui l'activité économique n'est qu'un moyen et non une fin, n'est-elle pas mise à mal à travers une telle acquisition ? Les dirigeants n'oublient-ils pas leur « cœur », leur mission sociale ? Faut-il réellement privilégier la croissance externe, alors que tant de choses restent à faire sur les activités actuelles d'Ares ? Les membres du conseil d'administration s'interrogent et se demandent s'ils doivent accepter ce rachat ou non.

Keywords: Acquisition, entreprise d'insertion.

GRAMEEN DANONE FOOD LIMITED (A): Creating a social business in Bangladesh

Frederic DALSACE, B. GARRETTE, J.-L. ARDOIN, B. FAIVRE TAVIGNOT

2012

The cases examine how Danone, the leading French food company, and Grameen, Mohammed Yunus' organization, built Grameen Danone Food Limited (GDFL), the first "Social Business" ever co-developed according to the 2006 Nobel Prize winner principles
During an informal lunch with Mohammed Yunus, Danone CEO's Franck Riboud agreed to form a Social Business (SB) in order to fight children's malnutrition in Bangladesh. This hand-shake resulted in the construction of a small plant in Bogra, designed to produce "shokti-doi", yoghurt specifically developed for Bangladesh. The development of such a new organizational form is far from being smooth, however, raising legitimate questions about its true potential as a way to alleviate poverty. Although no definitive answer can be provided at this stage, the case series provide instructors with enough details to illustrate the pros and cons of social businesses. More fundamentally, the series examine the use of market-based solutions to fight poverty and illustrate how firms exercise their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
Case A is positioned in December 2008, at a time when GDFL's model is clearly not performing. It gives an historical perspective on the joint-venture, and underlines the tension between the business' social and the economic aspects.
Cases B and C are short follow-up cases designed to be distributed in class.

Keywords: Food company, poverty, nutritious food, social business, ethics, corporate social responsibility, marketing, corporate alliance, Bangladesh.

GRAMEEN DANONE FOOD LIMITED (B): New Directions

Jean-Loup ARDOIN, F. DALSACE, B. GARRETTE, B. FAIVRE TAVIGNOT

2012

The cases examine how Danone, the leading French food company, and Grameen, Mohammed Yunus' organization, built Grameen Danone Food Limited (GDFL), the first "Social Business" ever co-developed according to the 2006 Nobel Prize winner principles.
During an informal lunch with Mohammed Yunus, Danone CEO's Franck Riboud agreed to form a Social Business (SB) in order to fight children's malnutrition in Bangladesh. This hand-shake resulted in the construction of a small plant in Bogra, designed to produce "shokti-doi", yoghurt specifically developed for Bangladesh. The development of such a new organizational form is far from being smooth, however, raising legitimate questions about its true potential as a way to alleviate poverty. Although no definitive answer can be provided at this stage, the case series provide instructors with enough details to illustrate the pros and cons of social businesses. More fundamentally, the series examine the use of market-based solutions to fight poverty and illustrate how firms exercise their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
Case A is positioned in December 2008, at a time when GDFL's model is clearly not performing. It gives an historical perspective on the joint-venture, and underlines the tension between the business' social and the economic aspects.
Cases B and C are short follow-up cases designed to be distributed in class.

Keywords: Food company, poverty, nutritious food, social business, ethics, corporate social responsibility, marketing, corporate alliance, Bangladesh.

GRAMEEN DANONE FOOD LIMITED (C): Update

Jean-Loup ARDOIN, F. DALSACE, B. GARRETTE, B. FAIVRE TAVIGNOT

2012

The cases examine how Danone, the leading French food company, and Grameen, Mohammed Yunus' organization, built Grameen Danone Food Limited (GDFL), the first "Social Business" ever co-developed according to the 2006 Nobel Prize winner principles.
During an informal lunch with Mohammed Yunus, Danone CEO's Franck Riboud agreed to form a Social Business (SB) in order to fight children's malnutrition in Bangladesh. This hand-shake resulted in the construction of a small plant in Bogra, designed to produce "shokti-doi", yoghurt specifically developed for Bangladesh. The development of such a new organizational form is far from being smooth, however, raising legitimate questions about its true potential as a way to alleviate poverty. Although no definitive answer can be provided at this stage, the case series provide instructors with enough details to illustrate the pros and cons of social businesses. More fundamentally, the series examine the use of market-based solutions to fight poverty and illustrate how firms exercise their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
Case A is positioned in December 2008, at a time when GDFL's model is clearly not performing. It gives an historical perspective on the joint-venture, and underlines the tension between the business' social and the economic aspects.
Cases B and C are short follow-up cases designed to be distributed in class.

Keywords: Food company, poverty, nutritious food, social business, ethics, corporate social responsibility, marketing, corporate alliance, Bangladesh.

Is the LYDEC experience replicable?

R. DURAND, A. JACQUEMINET, S. TOUBOUL

2012

This case describes how a services’ provider, LYDEC, entered the BoP market of Casablanca shanty towns step-by-step. First LYDEC entered as a sole player from 1997, which due to ill-adapted services and unreliable processes revealed to be an extremely costly initiative; then with government and local authorities support from 2005. In the second period, the strong public-private partnership enabled a better adaptation to customers’ need, a higher operational efficiency and limited investment costs. While GDF-Suez is nowadays envisaging replicating the initiative in other developing countries, students are asked to reflect on key success factors of the Moroccan initiative, ones that could be replicated, and issues that could arise in other institutional frameworks.

Keywords: Bottom of the Pyramid, Essential Services, Public Private Partnerships, Scalability, Replicability

Michelin Fleet Solutions. De la vente de pneumatiques à la vente de kilomètres

F. DALSACE, W. ULAGA, C. RENAULT

2012

Solutions; Transition from product to service; Service excellence; Business model change; Fleet management; Channel relationships; Sales force management; Service economy; Customer value; Environmental, friendly business models

Keywords: Solutions; Transition du produit au service; Excellence de service; Changement de modèle économique; Gestion de flotte; Gestion des forces de vente; Economie de service; Valeur client; Modèles économiques respectueux de l'environnement

Michelin Fleet Solutions: From selling tires to selling kilometers

F. DALSACE, W. ULAGA, C. RENAULT

2012

Michelin, a worldwide leader in the tyre industry, launched in 2000 a comprehensive tyre-management solution offer for large European transportation companies, called Michelin Fleet Solutions (MFS). With this new business model, the company ventured into selling kilometers - instead of selling tyres. This decision moves the strongly product-driven firm into the new world of services and solutions. The shift is intuitively appealing, and it provides Michelin with an opportunity to differentiate itself in the tyre business. After 3 years, however, expansion is far below expectations and profitability is terrible - despite the outside help of a strategy consulting firm. The case presents the decision point in 2003, whereby MFS's future has to be decided. Should Michelin seek to further develop this solution offer, and try to repackage the offer yet another time? Or was it just a passing fad that should be abandoned? This case investigates the difficulties that industrial groups face when they transition from selling products to providing service. It enables participants to reflect on the following issues: What's industrial groups' rationale for moving towards solutions? What kind of business model reconfiguration does it imply? How does moving to solutions raise multiple challenges throughout the organization (eg in terms of sales force management, risk management, channel relationships etc)?

Keywords: Solutions; Transition from product to service; Service excellence; Business model change; Fleet management; Channel relationships; Sales force management; Service economy; Customer value; Environmental, friendly business models

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