Brand Magic: Harry Potter marketing


Harvard Business Review

February 2007, vol. 85, n°2

Departments: Marketing

Code and Conduct in French Cuisine: Impact of code changes on external evaluations

R. DURAND, H. Rao, P. Monin

Strategic Management Journal

May 2007, vol. 28, n°5

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Code, Strategic changes, External evaluations, Social positioning

We study the effects of organizational code-preserving and code-violating changes on externalevaluations by third parties'an essential but under-studied strategic outcome. We define codepreservingchanges as a variation in the firm's product range that preserves the social codewithin which the firm positions its offering. By contrast, a code-violating change correspondsto a variation in the product range that breaks with past codes and embraces another socialcode. Our analyses of French haute cuisine restaurants show that code-preserving changes andcode-violating changes have positive effects on external evaluations. Both effects decline withprior evaluations received by the organization, but only the effect of code-violating changesis reduced with age. Moreover, external evaluations improve when restaurants undertake morecode-preserving changes than their direct competitors but decline when they make more codeviolatingchanges than competitors. These results enable us to derive implications for researchon strategic change, strategic groups, and strategic social positioning. Keywords code ' strategic changes ' external evaluations ' social positioning

Diminishing Returns from Reputation: Do Followers have a Competitive Advantage?

T. OBLOJ, K. Oblój

Corporate Reputation Review: an International Review

Winter 2007, vol. 9, n°4, pp.213-224

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Competitive advantage, Competitive dynamics, Reputation, Strategy

The paper addresses the value of reputation as a strategic, intangible resource. We hypothesize that a high reputation of an exchange partner will result in the ability to command a premium price during a transaction because it lowers the transaction costs of the other party. We also hypothesize that the smaller the differences in the level of reputation of competing parties, the more valuable a unit of reputation becomes. We test these hypotheses by empirical analysis of pairs of transactions on the Polish electronic exchange Allegro. Our analysis shows that if the differences in the levels of reputation decrease, the value of a unit of difference increases. We also extrapolate the results of our research into a more general model that shows the conditions in which a strategy based on high reputation (price premium per unit of reputation) is the most effective one and indicates the process of reputation development by stimulating the dynamics of leader and follower behavior.

Discourse and institutional change: ‘giving accounts’ and accountability


Management Accounting Research

June 2007, vol. 18, n°2, pp.150-171

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Enjeux et opportunités de l'executive education


Revue Française de Gestion

November-December 2007, n°178-179, pp.107-116

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Look Who's Talking! Technology-Supported Impression Formation in Virtual Communities


Advances in Consumer Research

2007, vol. 34, pp.450-451

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

The growing availability of consumer-generated information on the Internet about products, services, and companies has increased market transparency. Power is shifting from producers to consumers who share their knowledge, experiences, and opinions via virtual communities, electronic discussion forums, online opinion platforms, chat rooms, and weblogs. However, this abundance of readily available information also comes at a cost. How do you distinguish an expert from a fraud? Who is credible and trustworthy, and who isn't? We form impressions of others based on cues such as age, gender, manner of dress and speech (e.g., Hamilton & Huffman 1971). But how do we construct and evaluate impressions in an online environment that lacks social cues normally present in face-to-face settings?Cyberspace is in many ways distinctly different from the physical world. Two characteristics stand out. Firstly, interaction takes place through a technological interface, i.e., a computer, mobile phone, or an interactive television with Internet access. This means that the primary relationship is not between the sender and the receiver of information, but rather with the technology-mediated environment (Hoffman & Novak 1996). The second defining characteristic of cyberspace is its textuality. Communication and interaction online is based on the written word, audio, images, icons, and hyperlinks to other Web sites. This allows for new ways of self-presentation in which the physical self does not necessarily have to coincide with the digital self (Schau & Gilly 2003). Schau and Gilly (2003) have demonstrated that consumers make active use of signs, symbols, material objects, and places to construct a digital self on their personal Web site. In this paper, we want to extend their research into online self-presentational strategies by looking more closely at the receivers' side. The objective of our research is to investigate how consumers form impressions of senders in the context of word-of-web recommendations within virtual consumer communities (Kozinets 2002). Specifically, we focus on the role of the technological interface. According to Foucault (1977), technology can be considered as a disciplinary mechanism that is embedded in power devices. Examining how technologies are used to form and manage digital impressions, may help us to understand how individuals influence each other online. Gaining systematic insight in this process is necessary for improving and developing tools that aim to aid consumers in their assessment of online contributions (e.g., reputation systems, member profiles, contribution accounts)

Pourquoi les chercheurs français en management interviennent-ils si peu dans le débat public ?


Revue Française de Gestion

2007, pp.211-218

Departments: Marketing

Satisfaction with Virtual Communities of Interest: Effect on Members' Visit Frequency

K. DE VALCK, F. Langerak, P. Verhoef, P. W. J. Verlegh

British Journal of Management

September 2007, vol. 18, n°3, pp.241-256

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

The authors develop a four-dimensional scale to measure members' satisfaction with virtual communities of interest (VCI's). The dimensions consist of members' satisfaction with member-to-member interactions, organiser-to-member interactions and organiser-to-community interactions, all of which come together on the VCI's site. Using a sample of 3605 members of a VCI, the authors investigate the effect of each satisfaction dimension on members' visit frequency, and the moderating effect of membership duration on the links between the satisfaction dimensions and visit frequency. The results reveal that satisfaction with member-to-member interactions, organiser-to-member interactions and the community's site has positive effects on members' visit frequency. Members' satisfaction with organiser-to-community interactions has no effect on visit frequency. The findings also show that membership duration strengthens two, and weakens one of the linkages between the satisfaction dimensions and members' visit frequency*INDUSTRIES -- Social aspects*INTERNET*MANAGEMENT -- Research*TELECOMMUNICATIONSocial aspectsSOCIAL interactionVIRTUAL communities

The horizontal scope of the firm: organizational tradeoffs vs. buyer-supplier relationships


Management Science

April 2007, vol. 53, n°4, pp.550-565

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Added value, Biform games, Client-specific scope economies, Generalists versus specialists, Supply chain management

Horizontal scope—the set of products and services offered—is an important dimension of firm strategy and a potentially significant source of competitive advantage. On one hand, the ability to build close buyer-supplier relationships over multiple transactions can give an advantage to broad firms that offer buyers “one-stop shopping.” On the other hand, the existence of organizational tradeoffs can give an advantage to firms that specialize in a narrower range of products or services. We develop a biform game that incorporates this tension and show how the use of three generic scope strategies—specialist, generalist, and hybrid—depends on organizational tradeoffs, client-specific scope economies, barriers to entry, heterogeneity in buyer task requirements, and the bargaining power of suppliers relative to buyers. We then use the model to study a variety of issues in supply chain management, including the gains to coordinating suppliers, the optimal level of buyer power, and the desirability of subsidizing suppliers.One of our objectives is to show how biform games, which introduce unstructured negotiations into game theory analysis, can be used to develop applied theory relevant to strategy. Generalizing from our stylized model, we identify a class of biform games involving buyers and suppliers that is useful for strategy analysis. Games in this class have the attractive property of each supplier’s share of industry total surplus being the product of its added value and its relative bargaining power.

Transforming Audit Technologies: Business Risk Audit Methodologies and the Audit Field


Accounting Organizations and Society

2007, vol. 32, n°4-5, pp.409-438

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

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