"Court Save the Queen:" The European Court of Justice Quashes Another Deeply-Rooted Common Law Remedy in Transnational Parallel Litigation


Transnational Dispute Management

2009, n°1

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)

In the decision rendered on February 10, 2009 in Allianz S.p.A., Assicurazioni Generali S.p.A. v. West Tankers Inc. (Case C-185/07) ("West Tankers"), the European Court of Justice ("ECJ") quashed another procedural remedy which is typical of common law countries only and deeply rooted in such countries' history: the anti-suit injunction. Under such remedy, the court issues an order, directed to one of the parties to the proceedings pending before it, not to begin or continue another proceedings before a foreign court. The lack of performing the order results in heavy sanctions ...

An unprecedented privatisation of mandatory standard-setting: the case of European accounting policy


Critical Perspectives on Accounting

May 2009, vol. 20, n°4, pp.448-468

Departments: Accounting & Management Control, Tax & Law

Analysing, Accounting for and Unmasking Domination: On Our Role as Scholars of Practice, Practitioners of Social Science and Public Intellectuals

D. Golsorkhi, B. Leca, M. Lounsbury, C. RAMIREZ


October 2009, vol. 16, n°6, pp.779-797

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Bourdieu, Domination, Methodology, Organization studies, Participant objectivation, Reflexivity, Relational perspective, Social roles of scholars

Over the last 30 years, there has been an increasing interest in organizational analysis for the work of Pierre Bourdieu. However, the consequent body of literature often lacks an integrated comprehension of Bourdieusian theory and therefore fails to fully exploit its potentialities. In this essay, we argue for a more systematic engagement with the work of Bourdieu by organizational scholars and emphasize the opportunity to develop cumulative research on domination within and between organizations. The means by which systems of domination are reproduced without conscious intention by agents is a central issue for Bourdieu and arguably the primary reason for the development of his theoretical framework. It is thus through the study of domination that one can acquire a panoramic vision of Bourdieusian concepts that have been otherwise too often tackled separately. Moreover, domination is also a key entry to the understanding of how social scientists produce their own knowledge and of their role as members of society. We emphasize that as scholars, we have a moral responsibility to be reflexive about our practice and the social worlds we study in order to ultimately use the knowledge we produce to inform and direct social progress

Back to the Origins of Positive Theories: A Contribution to an Analysis of Paradigm Changes in Accounting Research


Accounting in Europe

2009, vol. 6, n°1, pp.107-126

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Research, Business education, Account books, Financial statements, Accountants, Management controls

In this article, we analyse factors that explain the success of the empirical methodology of ‘positive accounting theory’ (PA) in accounting research. In fewer than ten years, between 1960 and 1967–1968, PA became dominant in the main accounting journals, and normative theories disappeared from academic publishing. The reasons for this success are not clearly established. The propagators of PA (Ball and Brown, 1968; Watts and Zimmerman, 1986) advocate the fertility of their approach, while others (e.g. Mattessich, 1995; Mouck, 1988; Whittington, 1987; Williams, 1989) denounce their ostracism and systematic denigration of rival approaches. Both proponents and opponents of PA consider the emergence of positive theories as a radical severance; however, we suggest that the move from normative to positive theories occurred gradually. Even if they took advantage of the reform that took place in US business schools during the 1950s, the proponents of PA also benefited from a decoupling between the academic world and accounting practice initiated by their predecessors

Causation, counterfactuals and competitive advantage

R. DURAND, E. Vaara

Strategic Management Journal

December 2009, vol. 30, n°12, pp.1245-1264

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Causation, Counterfactuals, Competitive advantage, Epistemology

Causation needs more attention in strategy research. Confusion prevails around the statistical or causal nature of core relationships between resources, competitive advantage, and performance in the strategy corpus. Based on a discussion of alternative epistemological perspectives on causation, we define epistemological conditions that help to both dispel some of this confusion and to provide a basis for a counterfactual approach to causation. In particular, we argue that a counterfactual approach ' that builds on a systematic analysis of 'what-if' questions ' can advance our understanding of key causal mechanisms in strategy research. We offer two concrete methodologies ' counterfactual history and causal modeling ' as methodological solutions for causal strategy research. We show that counterfactual methods can open up new avenues for historical analysis, which has been very limited in our field, but maintain that such studies should take into account the inherent cognitive biases of retrospective constructions. We also illustrate that causal modeling provides opportunities for new conceptualizations and empirical testing of the relationships between resources and performance. In particular, resource properties can be regarded as mediating mechanisms in these causal relationships.

CEO Ambivalence and Responses to Strategic Issues


Organization Science

November-December 2009, vol. 20, n°6, pp.993-1010

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy

Keywords: Ambivalent evaluations, Organizational action, Behavioral theory of the firm

We examine how executives' ambivalent evaluation of a strategic issue relates to organizational actions taken in response. Ambivalence occurs when a decision maker evaluates an issue as simultaneously positive and negative, a state that has received scant attention in organizational research. We integrate findings in social psychology with the behavioral theory of the firm to suggest how executives' ambivalence prompts wider and more vigorous search for action responses and enables broader participation. Data from a two-wave survey of 104 German CEOs who evaluated the enlargement of the European Union in 2004 and reported their organizations' responses show that organizations whose CEOs evaluated the event as both positive and negative were more likely to take action when both evaluations were also strongly held. The reported actions were also of greater scope, novelty, and riskiness. The study contributes to research on organizational decision making by theorizing the role of top executives' ambivalence and by providing a first systematic test of how ambivalence affects responses to strategic issues

Citizen Trust Development for E-Government Adoption and Usage: Insights from Young Adults in Singapore


Communications of the AIS

2009, vol. 25, n°31, pp.359-378

Departments: Information Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Trust, which has been found to be a significant facilitator for the adoption and usage of new business paradigms like e-commerce, is relatively unexplored in the context of e-government. Using trust literature as the theoretical lens, we propose an e-government trust grid for the adoption and usage of e-government, comprising two dimensions: 'trust in government' and 'trust in Internet technology.' Based on their levels of trust in the two identified dimensions, nations can fall into one of four quadrants: Adversarial, Competitive, Cooperative, and Collaborative. Using focus groups and interviews with young adults in Singapore, we find that in recent years, Singapore is evolving from the cooperative (low trust in Internet technology and high trust in government) to the collaborative (high trust in Internet technology and high trust in government) quadrant. The study delineates a set of lessons learned from the Singapore experience for engendering citizen trust in e-government. These lessons for governments are: solicit feedback from citizens, demonstrate top leadership commitment and support, build institutional trust, cultivate IT literacy, and enact comprehensive and effective legal systems.

Communication environnementale et réputation de l'organisation

D. Philippe, R. DURAND

Revue Française de Gestion

May 2009, n°194, pp.45-63

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Dans cet article, les auteurs avancent l'idée que les informations publiées par l'organisation sur son comportement environnemental constituent des signaux qui auront des impacts différenciés sur la réputation organisationnelle en fonction de leur nature, leur visibilité et leur cohérence. Les résultats indiquent que la conformité, la coprésence de signaux conformes et non conformes, et la visibilité du signal rejaillissent favorablement sur la réputation. Enfin, l'impact des signaux de conformité peu visibles dépend de la réputation antérieure de l'organisation, et ce à l'avantage des organisations bénéficiant d'une réputation plus élevée que la moyenne. Ces résultats permettent ainsi de contribuer à la fois à la littérature sur la communication environnementale et à celle sur le management de la réputation. *BUSINESS enterprises -- Environmental aspects*BUSINESS communication*COMMUNICATION in organizations*BUSINESS planning*INDUSTRIAL managementREPUTATION (Sociology)

Competing technology options and stakeholder interests for tracking freight railcars in Indian Railways


Journal of Information Technology

December 2009, vol. 24, n°4, pp.392-400

Departments: Information Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: RFID, GPS, Technology choice, Options, Railroad, India

This teaching case examines the implementation of a new technology for tracking individual freight railcars (wagons) by Indian Railways. After exploring multiple ‘technological options,’ the Indian Railways decided to undertake a pilot project based on time-tested Automatic Equipment Identification system using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. However, a number of other technological options are now available, which include EPC Gen2-based RFID systems, Global Positioning System solutions, Optical Character Recognition (OCR)-based systems, and manual hand-held data collection devices integrated with the current Freight Operations System. Each of these systems has its own advantages and limitations. Although Indian Railways officials are going ahead with the pilot project, they are uncertain as to the appropriate technological choice, given the wide range of available technology options. Further, they are faced with competing interests from different stakeholder groups (departments), who favor different technologies.

Constructing the governable small practitioner: The changing nature of professional bodies and the management of professional accountants' identities in the UK


Accounting Organizations and Society

April-May 2009, vol. 34, n°3-4, pp.381-408

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Governable small practitioner, Professional bodies, Professional accountants

This article aims at contributing to the sociology of the accountancy profession by analysing how professional organisations govern the various categories that have emerged in the professional body throughout its history. To this end, the attempt by the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales to give an institutional existence to the category of “the small practitioner” is examined. The plasticity and the polysemic nature of the notion of smallness, which refers simultaneously to physical (small/big), geographical (local/global) and moral (anonymous/notorious) characteristics, offers a particular opportunity to show how these three dimensions have been integrated into evolving organisational arrangements and discourses aimed at legitimising the professional order. It is contended that the definition of what small practitioners are, and how they should be dealt with, can only be understood as part of the broader issue of governance of the accountancy community and the nature of the professional body. The ICAEW’s efforts to problematise the nature of small practices indicates a will to integrate distant modalities of accounting expertise into a single professional space, so as to prevent the physical and geographical distance between big and small firms from becoming too conspicuous a hierarchical distinction, and thus preserve the ideal of the community of peers upon which professional bodies have been built

Criticisms of capitalism, budgeting and the double enrolment: Budgetary control rhetoric and social reform in France in the 1930s and 1950s

E. CHIAPELLO, N. Berland

Accounting Organizations and Society

January 2009, vol. 34, n°1, pp.28-57

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

This article is a contribution to the study of the spread of management innovations, methods and rhetorics. It particularly concerns the influence of ideological and political factors, which have so far mostly escaped in-depth study. In particular, we seek to understand to what extent a critique of society developed by social reformers can be a source of inspiration for managers, leading them to change their practices and experiment with new devices. Relying on the framework of historical change in management practices developed by Boltanski and Chiapello [Boltanski, L., & Chiapello, E. (2005). The new spirit of capitalism. London: Verso (Translation of Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme, Paris: Gallimard, 1999)], we study the specific development of budgetary control in France, examined in the light of the general political and economic history of the 20th century. This framework simultaneously encompasses the dissemination of a new accounting practice, the transformation of capitalist institutions and mo des of regulation in a given period and country, and the programmatic discourses [Miller, P., & Rose, N. (1990). Governing economic life. Economy and Society, 19(1), 1'31] associated with the historical move.More exactly, what interests us is a double enrolment process. The business world promoters of budgetary control use the rhetorics of social reformers to present budgetary control as a solution to the economic and social problems of their time; conversely, social reformers promote budgetary control as a realistic, efficient tool that can change the world. Ultimately, a degree of alliance is possible around this management tool, although the extent to which the meanings each group attributes to its action are shared may remain unclear. Based on an analysis of the writings of budgetary control promoters of the 1930s and the 1950s, we show the close links between their discourse and the reforming ideas of their time, and how we can trace through this corpus the evolution of this kind of political rationalities [Miller, P., & Rose, N. (1990). Governing economic life. Economy and Society, 19(1), 1'31] associated with governing and managing corporations we call the spirit of capitalism [Boltanski, L., & Chiapello, E. (2005). The new spirit of capitalism. London: Verso (Translation of Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme, Paris: Gallimard, 1999)].

Entre originalidad institucional y recepción filosófica: Apuntes críticos sobre el nuevo modelo constitucional latinoamericano


Cuaderno sobre Relaciones Internacionales, Regionalismo y Desarrollo

2009, vol. 4, n°7, pp.39-67

Departments: Tax & Law

Entre originalidad institucional y recepción filosófica: Apuntes críticos sobre el nuevo modelo constitucional latinoamericano

ERP Competence-Building Mechanisms: An Exploratory Investigation of Configurations of ERP Adopters in the European and U.S. Manufacturing Sectors

A. MASINI, L. Van Wassenhove

Manufacturing & Service Operations Management

Spring 2009, vol. 11, n°2, pp.274-298

Departments: Information Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

This paper contributes to the literature on enterprise resource planning (ERP) by pursuing two objectives. First, it identifies configurations of ERP adopters that have similar needs and develop similar competencies. Second, it tests the hypothesis that, to maximize benefits from their ERP projects, organizations should align their ERP competence-building mechanisms with the ERP needs that arise from their operational environment. The analysis of a sample of manufacturing companies that implemented ERP between 1995 and 2001 uncovers four distinct configurations representing different degrees of fit between needs and competence-building mechanisms: the frugal ERP, the extensive business process reengineering (BPR), the adaptive ERP, and the straitjacket. The results support our hypothesis and suggest that the consequences of a misfit between needs and competence-building mechanisms are more severe for companies that operate in complex and dynamic environments and have informal organizational structures than for firms with rigid structures that operate in simple and stable environments. Key Words: enterprise resource planning (ERP); operations strategy; information and communication technology; empirical research; cluster analysis

Horizontal Alliances as an Alternative to Autonomous Production: Product Expansion Mode Choice in the Worldwide Aircraft Industry 1945-2000


Strategic Management Journal

August 2009, vol. 30, n°8, pp.885-894

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Alliance, Collaboration, Fit, Governance, Resource, Competence, Growth, International strategic alliances, Resource-based theory, Competitive advantage, Transaction cost, Joint ventures, Aerospace industry, Firm, Capabilities, Technology, Perspectives

This study investigates why firms choose to undertake product expansion through alliances with competitors rather than on their own. We highlight product heterogeneity, as a determinant of this make or ally choice. We propose that firms turn to horizontal alliances in order to implement product expansion projects that require greater resources than those available to them. More precisely, we hypothesize that a firm. is more likely to launch a new product through a horizontal alliance rather than autonomously when the resource requirements of the project are greater, the resources available to the firm are more limited, there is a mismatch between resource endowment and requirement, and the firm's collaborative competence allows it to better cope with the interorganizational concerns that collaboration with competitors raises. We find support for our arguments on a sample of 310 new aircraft developments launched between 1945 and 2000, either by a single prime contractor or as a horizontal alliance in which prime contractorship is shared with another industry incumbent

Investimenti in ICT e performance aziendali: Un'analisi delle strategie di implementazione ottimali (ICT investments and firm performance: optimal implementation strategies)

A. MASINI, L. Van Wassenhove

Economia & Management

March 2009, vol. 2

Departments: Information Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

pas sous affiliation hecQuesto articolo offre un contributo alla letteratura sulla relazione tra investimenti in ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) e performance attraverso l'analisi di un campione di clienti SAP nel settore manifatturiero. La ricerca esamina l'efficacia delle principali strategie di implementazione dei sistemi ERP in relazione ai bisogni delle imprese. I risultati suggeriscono l'esistenza di quattro gruppi omogenei di imprese che hanno bisogni simili e sviluppano competenze simili durante l'implementazione del software. Essi suggeriscono inoltre che, per massimizzare i benefici del sistema adottato, le imprese debbano allineare le competenze generate con i bisogni derivanti dal loro ambiente operativo. Appare anche evidente che le conseguenze di un mancato allineamento tra bisogni e le scelte progettuali operate durante l'implementazione del sistema siano più severe per le imprese con strutture organizzative informali che operano in ambienti complessi e dinamici, che per le imprese con strutture rigide che operano in ambienti semplici e stabili.

Les responsables développement durable des grandes entreprises. Parcours, engagement er représentations

F. Gitiaux, E. CHIAPELLO

ROR - Revue de l'Organisation Responsable - Responsible Organization Review

May 2009, n°1, pp.43-53

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Corporate Social Responsibility managers have a paaradoxical function in companies. They earn a living by showing the firm its negative social and environmental impacts, even when it seems difficult to address seriously the question without endangering the economic equilibrium. This article presents the results of a study which has aimed at knowing better who these people are, what kind of backgroudn they have, what have been their professional trajectory, how they consider their job, a.s.o. 11 interviews have been held followed by an on-line survey (34 answers).Keywords: managers, executives, sustainable development

New Rhetoric's Empir: Pragmatim, Dogmatism and Sphism


Philosophy and Rhetoric

2009, vol. 42, n°4, pp.326-348

Departments: Marketing

Où est passé le management public? Incertitude, institution et risque majeurs.


Politiques et Management Public

2009, vol. 3, pp.25-48

Departments: Marketing

Policy oriented review for photovoltaics introduction in the EU


International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology

2009, vol. 1, n°1, pp.64-80

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy

Pour des sciences de gestion en prise avec la société

R. DURAND, S. Charreire-Petit, V. Warnier

Revue Française de Gestion

May 2009, n°194, pp.15-28

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Ce numéro spécial RFG-AIMS 2009 regroupe une sélection d'articles retenus suite à la XVIIIe conférence AIMS qui s'est déroulée à Nice en mai 2008. Cependant, nous avons choisi de nous écarter quelque peu de la tradition d'un numéro spécial RFG-AIMS, habituellement centré autour d'un thème fédérateur. Nous avons souhaité que ce numéro spécial 2009 reflète des oppositions, des discussions, des controverses de notre champ en présentant une mise en perspective des débats émergents de l'AIMS 2008, pointant chacun la nécessité d'une meilleure inscription des sciences de gestion dans la société. En outre, les articles de ce numéro spécial font appel à plusieurs autres disciplines et méthodes telles que l'analyse critique, l'analyse fictionnelle, l'anthropologie, ou la sociologie. Ils semblent se répondre entre eux autour d'une même philosophie générale : mieux inscrire les sciences de gestion dans la société implique de revenir sur le rôle de la recherche en gestion, sur la manière dont elle est produite et sur l'utilisation de ses productions par la pratique. Souhaitant introduire ces débats tout en y participant, nous avons pensé que le moment était venu qu'une tribune en faveur d'un meilleur ancrage des sciences de gestion dans la société soit publiée.

Rational vs. Institutional Perspectives in Organizational Websites

S. C. SRIVASTAVA, T. S. H. Teo, A. Subramanian

Communications of the AIS

June 2009, vol. 24, pp.615-638

Departments: Information Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Isomorphism, Differentiation, Web sites, Institutional theory, Rational, Imitation, Bank, Business schools, IT firms, Inter-industry, Intra-industry

Despite the business importance attached to the choice of features in organizational Web sites, most research on the subject is descriptive in nature. To our knowledge, no study has attempted to understand the underlying theoretical rationale explaining firms’ choice of Web site features. Adoption of innovative systems by organizations is not always a “rational decision” based on the market innovation perspective; it may be based on the organizations’ decision to conform to the “institutionalized norms” within or across the industries. In a similar vein, the underlying rationale for the firms’ choice of Web site features may be either predominantly “rational” or “institutional.” We use Web content analysis to examine the dominant theoretical perspective guiding the organizational Web sites: rational (differentiation) or institutional (alikeness). For this, we analyze the data recorded from 243 Web sites: 91 information technology firms (IT industry), 67 business schools (education industry) and 85 banks (banking industry). Data pertaining to 20 features of Web sites are classified into information and interactive contents within and across three industries. Results suggest that Web site features are primarily explained by intra-industry norms of alikeness rather than inter-industry similarities, thereby supporting the preponderance of “institutional perspective” for Web site features within each of the three industries examined. In contrast, differences in Web site features across the three industries can be explained using the “rational perspective.” Thus, both rational and institutional perspectives serve as useful theoretical lenses for understanding choice of organizational Web site features. The study also delineates a set of implications for research and practice.

Reform or renaissance? France's 1966 Companies Act and the problem of the ‘professionalisation’ of the auditing profession in France


Accounting History Review (ex Accounting Business and Financial History)

July 2009, vol. 19, n°2, pp.127-148

Departments: Accounting & Management Control

Keywords: Audit, Professionalisation, France

This paper revisits an episode in the history of the auditing profession in France: the period that saw the ‘professionalisation’ of auditing in the late 1960s, almost 100 years after enactment of the law that had officially created the activity. Despite the existence of practitioners with a reputation for competency and despite the more stringent conditions imposed on the recruitment of these practitioners during the 1930s, certification of accounts had remained a ‘function’ rather than a profession. The reform of France's commercial code in 1966 thus gave auditors a second chance, making them a key component in an ambitious plan to modernise French financial markets. The paper considers this reform from the angle of the problem facing the reformers, that of ‘professionalising the profession’ of auditor. Two aspects of the problems are discussed. The first concerns the need to take into consideration the existence of another profession, the profession of the French chartered accountant (expert-comptable), which in the opinion of its leaders had a legitimate claim to a monopoly on auditing. The second concerns the fate reserved for pre-reform audit practitioners (comissaires de sociétés), not all of whom would be admitted as members of the new auditing profession

Structure! Agency! (And other Quarrels): Meta-Analyzing Institutional Theories of Organization

P. P. M. A. R. Heugens, M. LANDER

Academy of Management Journal

February 2009, vol. 52, n°1, pp.61-85

Departments: Management & Human Resources, GREGHEC (CNRS)

The Cost of Transnational Accidents: Lessons from Bhopal and Amoco


Journal of World Trade

2009, vol. 43, n°4, pp.683-705

Departments: Tax & Law, GREGHEC (CNRS)

This article deals with the economic effects generated by different conflict rules on incentives of economic agents. In particular, we ascertain the rules currently in force at the domestic level, and subsequently analyze each of them from an economic standpoint. Namely, we focus our analysis on the following rules: the so-called lex loci delicti, the lex loci laesionis, the forum shopping and the forum non conveniens, the optio legis principle, and the rule of victim’s freedom of choice. We exploit these rules to explain some famous cases, that is, the accident that occurred at the Bhopal plant in 1984 and the oil spill involving the supertanker Amoco Cadiz.

The political economy of international regulatory convergence in public utilities

J.-P. BONARDI, S. Urbiztondo, B. QUÉLIN

International Journal of Management and Network Economics (IJMNE)

2009, vol. 1, n°2, pp.232 - 256

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Regulatory convergence, Telecommunications, Unbundling regulations, Political economy, Public utilities, Public utility regulation, Regulation impacts, Local impact.

To what extent should public utilities regulation be expected to converge across countries? When it occurs, will it generate good outcomes? Building on the core proposition of the New Institutional Economics that similar regulations generate different outcomes depending on their fit with the underlying domestic institutions, we develop a simple model and explore its implications by examining the diffusion of local loop unbundling (LLU) regulations. We argue that: one should expect some convergence in public utility regulation but with still a significant degree of local experimentation; this process will have very different impacts of regulation

Videography in Consumer Research; Visions for a Method on the Rise

K. DE VALCK, J. Hietanen, J. Rokka

Finanza Marketing e Produzione

2009, vol. 27, n°4, pp.81-101

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Virtual Communities: A Marketing Perspective

K. DE VALCK, G. van Bruggen, B. Wierenga

Decision Support Systems

June 2009, vol. 47, n°3, pp.185-203

Departments: Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Keywords: Consumer decision process, Interpersonal influence, Marketing, Netnography, Virtual communities of consumption, Virtual community members, Virtual community participation word-of-mouth

Increasingly, consumers interact through the Internet to share their knowledge, experiences, and opinions. Consequently, 'word-of-mouse' has become a significant market force that influences consumer decision-making. On the basis of extensive quantitative and qualitative research, the authors sketch how consumers make use of virtual communities as social and information networks, and how this affects their decision-making processes. We present three studies that address (i) determinants and effects of virtual community influence on the consumer decision process; (ii) virtual community participation patterns; and (iii) discussion practices of the most active community members. Key implications for managers, marketers, and market researchers are discussed.Keywords: Consumer decision process; Interpersonal influence; Marketing; Netnography; Virtual communities of consumption; Virtual community members; Virtual community participation; Word-of-mouth

Y a-t-il une bulle immobilière en Chine (Is There a Realestate Bubble in China)?


Bulletin Economique Chine

October 2009, n°18, pp.1-4

Departments: Strategy & Business Policy


Stratégie, structure, décision, identité : politique générale d'entreprise

translated in French from Stratégie, structure, décision, identité : politique générale d'entreprise, Dunod, Paris, 1997

les membres du département Stratégie et Politique d'Entreprise, sous le pseudonyme de "Strategor", B. QUÉLIN

Dunod, Paris

5e ed., 2009

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